1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Ricinus L.
      1. Ricinus communis L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is NE. Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    An erect, single-stemmed but often much-branched bushy or tree-like glabrous, ± glaucous annual or perennial herb commonly up to 5 m., but occasionally attaining 10 m.
    Stem
    Stems up to 12 cm. in diameter at the base, hollow, herbaceous but often becoming woody, pale bluish-green or reddish tinged.
    Shoots
    Young shoots often pruinose and purplish tinged.
    Leaves
    Petioles (4–)10–30 cm. long, usually smooth, rarely sparingly beset with small cylindrical papillae; petiolar glands discoid to turbinate, dark green; blades up to 1 m. across, (5–)7–9(–12)-lobed, usually more than halfway but occasionally less, the median lobe usually 7–30 cm. long and 2–8 cm wide, but occasionally up to 75 cm. long and 20 cm. wide, the lateral lobes being proportionately progressively smaller; lobes ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate, oblong or linear-oblong, acutely acuminate, coarsely and sometimes somewhat irregularly glandular-serrate, firmly membranaceous to thinly chartaceous, lateral nerves (15–)20–25 on the median lobe, progressively fewer on the lateral lobes, not prominent above, slightly so beneath, craspedodromous, dark olive-green above, paler beneath, midribs and nerves often reddish beneath.
    Stipules
    Stipular sheath ovate, 1.3–2.7 cm. long, often reddish or purplish, soon cadu-cous, leaving a ± circular scar.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 10–30 cm. long; bracts lanceolate, ± 1 cm. long, green, reddish tinged; bracteoles smaller than the bracts, but otherwise similar.
    Flowers
    Male flowers:pedicels 0.5–1.7 cm. long; calyx-lobes ovate, 5–8 mm. long, (2–)3–5 mm. wide, acute, pale green, often tinged reddish or purplish; stamens 7–8 mm. long, anthers 0.5 mm. long, pale yellow. Female flowers:pedicels 0.5–1 cm. long, extending to 2–4.5 cm. in fruit; sepals narrowly lanceolate, ± 5 mm. long, acutely acuminate, often reddish or purplish tinged; ovary trilobate-subglobose, 2 mm. long and wide; styles 2–5 mm. long, ± one-third bifid to almost completely bipartite, usually red, rarely yellowish.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 0.5–1.7 cm. long; calyx-lobes ovate, 5–8 mm. long, (2–)3–5 mm. wide, acute, pale green, often tinged reddish or purplish; stamens 7–8 mm. long, anthers 0.5 mm. long, pale yellow.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels 0.5–1 cm. long, extending to 2–4.5 cm. in fruit; sepals narrowly lanceolate, ± 5 mm. long, acutely acuminate, often reddish or purplish tinged; ovary trilobate-subglobose, 2 mm. long and wide; styles 2–5 mm. long, ± one-third bifid to almost completely bipartite, usually red, rarely yellowish.
    Fruits
    Fruit strongly trilobate, 1–1.8 cm. long, 1–1.5 cm. diameter, sparingly, evenly or densely beset with narrowly cylindric fleshy processes 3–5 mm. long, each tipped with a sharp curved bristle, bluish green, often tinged reddish or purplish.
    Seeds
    Seeds 7–12 mm. long, 5–8 mm. wide, 4–6 mm. deep, smooth, shiny, greyish, silvery or beige, usually variously streaked, mottled and flecked with olive-brown, chestnut or dark greyish brown; caruncle depressed-conic, 1–2 mm. long, 2–3 mm. across.
    Habitat
    Widely grown and readily naturalized in areas of moderate to good rainfall in frost-free areas; poisonous to stock; the ‘Castor Oil Plant’; sea-level–1900(–2590) m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 ± throughout tropical and extra-tropical Africa, and cultivated and naturalized ± throughout the warmer parts of the globe
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    An erect glabrous pruinose single-stemmed or bushy, tree-like herb up to 7 m high.
    Stem
    Stems up to 10 cm thick at base, hollow, becoming ± woody, grey.
    Shoots
    Young shoots often reddish-tinged.
    Petiole
    Petioles 4–30 cm long, or longer; glands discoid or turbinate.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades (5)7–11-lobed, 7–35(100) cm long and wide, with the median lobe 2–8(20) cm wide, and the lateral lobes progressively smaller; lobes ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, acuminate, coarsely glandular-serrate, dark green on upper surface, paler beneath, the nerves yellowish; lateral nerves in 15–25 pairs on the median lobe.
    Leaf sheaths
    Stipular sheath up to 2.7 cm long, ovate, reddish or purplish.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 10–30 cm long; bracts c. 1 cm long, lanceolate; bracteoles similar, but smaller.
    Flowers
    Male flowers: pedicels up to 1.7 cm long; calyx lobes 5–8 × 2–5 mm, ovate, acute, pale green, often purplish-tinged; stamens 7–8 mm long, anthers 0.5 mm long, pale yellow. Female flowers: pedicels 0.5–1 cm long, extending to 4.5 cm in fruit; sepals c. 5 mm long, lanceolate, acuminate, often purplish-tinged; ovary 2 mm long and wide, 3-lobed to subglobose; styles up to 7 mm long.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels up to 1.7 cm long; calyx lobes 5–8 × 2–5 mm, ovate, acute, pale green, often purplish-tinged; stamens 7–8 mm long, anthers 0.5 mm long, pale yellow.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 0.5–1 cm long, extending to 4.5 cm in fruit; sepals c. 5 mm long, lanceolate, acuminate, often purplish-tinged; ovary 2 mm long and wide, 3-lobed to subglobose; styles up to 7 mm long.
    Fruits
    Fruit 1–2.3 cm long and wide, strongly 3-lobed, smooth, or sparingly to densely beset with narrowly-cylindric bristle-tipped processes 3–6 mm long, bluish-green.
    Seeds
    Seeds 7–21 × 5–15 × 4–8 mm, smooth, usually shiny, grey, silvery-white or beige, usually variously streaked, mottled, flecked or blotched with olive-brown, reddish-brown or brownish-black; caruncle 1–2 × 2–3 mm, depressed-conic.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Kenya

    Native to:

    Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Botswana, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Canary Is., Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Central European Rus, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, Chile Central, Chile North, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Easter Is., Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Italy, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Korea, Leeward Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Maldives, Mali, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique Channel I, Namibia, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Selvagens, Senegal, Sicilia, Society Is., Socotra, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Zaïre

    Ricinus communis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2008 Hinton, G.B. [5973], Michoacán K000476981
    Apr 1, 1999 Etuge, M. [3403], Cameroon K000338907
    Apr 1, 1999 Zapfack, L. [784], Cameroon K000338906
    Hinton, G.B. [5973], Michoacán K000476982
    Hinton, G.B. [4811], México State K000476983
    Hinton, G.B. [5481], Guerrero K000476984
    Philcox, D. [7695], Trinidad & Tobago K000716079
    Philcox, D. [7695], Trinidad & Tobago K000716080
    Philcox, D. [3796], Brazil K001206820
    Philcox, D. [3796], Brazil K001206823
    Moult, P.H. [13], Ethiopia 36242.000
    Heringer, E.P. [6262], Brazil K001206827
    Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001206817
    Kuhlmann, M. [117], Brazil K001206819
    André [1242] K001206818
    Langlassé, E. [950], Mexico K000503183
    Balée, W.L. [930], Brazil K001206826
    Gonzalez Ortega, J. [306], Mexico K000503182
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 580], Great Britain K000914622
    Silva, M.N. [248], Brazil K001206828
    Spruce [s.n.], Brazil K001206822
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001206821
    Burchell [4682], Brazil K001206824
    Carneiro Torres, D.S. [94], Brazil K001206825

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1007 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Baliousis, E. (2014). Recent data from the flora of the island of Limnos (NE Aegean, Greece): new alien invasive species affecting the agricultural economy of the island Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 275-285.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistan Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
    • Barberá, P., Velayos, M. & Aedo, C. (2013). Annotated checklist and identification keys of the Acalyphoideae (Euphorbiaceae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Phytotaxa 140: 1-25.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lebrun, J.-P. (1998). Catalogue des plantes de la Mauritanie et du Sahara Occidental Boissiera 55: 1-322.
    • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Guinea, E. (1948). Catálogo razonado de las plantas del Sáhara Español Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 8: 357-429.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 945
    • Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl. Pflanzenr. Euph. 11: 119, fig. 29, q.v. for varieties and forms.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistan Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
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    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
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    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/