1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Sclerocroton Hochst.
      1. Sclerocroton integerrimus Hochst.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A shrub or small tree 2–8 m tall, glabrous, monoecious.
    Twigs
    Twigs reddish-brown and flaking at first, later becoming grey-brown and lenticellate.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, the petioles 3–5 mm long, adaxially ± flattened; leaf blades (2)3–8(10) × 1–3(5) cm, ovate-lanceolate to ovate-oblong, shortly obtusely or subacutely acuminate at the apex, cuneate to rounded or subtruncate and minutely cordulate at the base, entire or shallowly serrate, usually with 1–2 glands near the base, occasionally also with 1 or 2 near the margin away from the base, but not approaching the apex, firmly chartaceous to thinly coriaceous, dark green and shiny on upper surface, paler and glaucous beneath; lateral nerves in 9–12 pairs, scarcely prominent above or beneath, tertiary nerves coarsely reticulate.
    Stipules
    Stipules 5–6 mm long, linear-lanceolate, broadened and laciniate at the base, acute, ciliate, soon deciduous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal on lateral shoots, leaf-opposed or occasionally axillary, 2–7 cm long, very shortly pedunculate to sessile, all male or with 1 female flower at the base; male bracts 1 mm long, broadly ovate, denticulate-ciliolate, with a discoid gland on each side at the base, many-flowered; female bracts tripartite, larger that the males and somewhat laciniate; bracteoles irregular.
    Flowers
    Male flowers: pedicels 1 mm long; calyx lobes 3, triangular, irregularly denticulate, yellowish; stamens 3, free, 0.5 mm long. Female flowers: pedicels 3–6 mm long, extending to 10 mm in fruit; calyx lobes 3, broadly triangular, alternating either with sessile discoid glands or lanceolate lacinulae, otherwise as in the males; ovary 2 mm in diameter, 3-lobed, each lobe bearing 2 broadly triangular appendages 1 mm long; styles 3, 7 mm long, connate at the base.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels 1 mm long; calyx lobes 3, triangular, irregularly denticulate, yellowish; stamens 3, free, 0.5 mm long.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 3–6 mm long, extending to 10 mm in fruit; calyx lobes 3, broadly triangular, alternating either with sessile discoid glands or lanceolate lacinulae, otherwise as in the males; ovary 2 mm in diameter, 3-lobed, each lobe bearing 2 broadly triangular appendages 1 mm long; styles 3, 7 mm long, connate at the base.
    Fruits
    Fruit 1–1.5 × 1.5–2 cm, 3-lobed, septicidally dehiscent into 3 bivalved cocci each valve bearing a shortly-conical appendage 2 mm long; exocarp becoming brownish and separating from the 2 mm thick woody endocarp.
    Seeds
    Seeds 7 × 5 mm, ovoid-ellipsoid, smooth, dull, pale greyish-brown fleckedand spotted with darker brown, ecarunculate.
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Diagnostic
    Very similar to S. integerrimum, differing chiefly in the somewhat larger leaves (up to 14 × 6 cm) which are crenate-serrate and which have the glands on the blade sparingly and irregularly arranged towards the margin, and not necessarily at the base. The fruits too may be somewhat larger (up to 2.5 cm long).
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A small completely glabrous tree 4.5–7.5 m. tall, rarely taller.
    Branches
    Branches pendulous.
    Twigs
    Twigs smooth and olivaceous at first, later becoming lenticellate and brown.
    Scales
    Perulae oblong, obtuse, somewhat shiny, dark brown or blackish, minutely ciliolate, 2.5 mm. long.
    Leaves
    Petioles 4–8 mm. long, adaxially canaliculate; leaf-blades ovate to oblong-ovate, (3–)5–11(–13) cm. long, 2–6.5 cm. wide, shortly subacutely acuminate, rounded or ± so and sometimes minutely cordulate, shallowly crenate-serrate, rarely subentire, sparingly and irregularly gland-dotted towards the margin, but not always at the base, firmly chartaceous to subcoriaceous, lateral nerves 9–12(–15) pairs, not prominent above, slightly prominent beneath, mostly camptodromous, brochidodromous towards the apex, dark green and shiny above, pale green and dull beneath.
    Stipules
    Stipules very readily caducous, not seen.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences subterminal, or terminal on short lateral shoots, solitary, spicate, subsessile, 5–6 cm. long, either all ♂ or with 1–2 ♀ flowers at the base; ♂ bracts transversely ovate-suborbicular, 1–1.5 mm. long, denticulate, each with 2 discoid fleshy glands at the base, 4–6-flowered; ♀ bracts ovate-lanceolate, ± 3 mm. long, eglandular, laciniate, 1-flowered.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels ± 1 mm. long; calyx-lobes 3, subequal, triangular, 0.5 mm. long, yellow; stamens 2, free, scarcely exserted, anthers 0.5 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Female flowers:pedicels extending to 1.2–2 cm. in fruit; calyx-lobes 3, shortly united at the base, broadly ovate, 1.5 mm. long, acute, denticulate, with a large or small gland in each sinus but eglandular within, ovary 3-locular, with 2 short triangular horns on the back of each carpel; styles 3, shortly connate at the base, revolute. Male flowers:pedicels ± 1 mm. long; calyx-lobes 3, subequal, triangular, 0.5 mm. long, yellow; stamens 2, free, scarcely exserted, anthers 0.5 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels extending to 1.2–2 cm. in fruit; calyx-lobes 3, shortly united at the base, broadly ovate, 1.5 mm. long, acute, denticulate, with a large or small gland in each sinus but eglandular within, ovary 3-locular, with 2 short triangular horns on the back of each carpel; styles 3, shortly connate at the base, revolute.
    Fruits
    Fruit dehiscent, trilobate, obpyriform, (1–)1.5–2 cm. long and in diameter, apiculate, with the 6 horns 3 mm. high and 7 mm. wide at the base, otherwise ± smooth, becoming wrinkled when dry, green at first, then black; exocarp thick, coriaceous, ultimately becoming separated from the endocarp; endocarp woody, 2.5–3 mm. thick at the base.
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid, 6–8 mm. long, 3.5–5 mm. wide, smooth, dull, ± concolorous or else pale yellowish brown streaked and flecked with dark brown, ecarunculate.
    Habitat
    Lowland often dry forest and associated thicket or wooded grassland, sometimes riverine; 100–300(–730) m.
    Distribution
    T6 T8

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Guinea, KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Sclerocroton integerrimus Hochst. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 1, 1958 Krauss [468], South Africa Sapium integerrimum K000425797 Unknown type material
    Sep 1, 1958 Krauss [357], South Africa Sapium integerrimum K000425798 isotype
    Krauss [468], South Africa Sapium integerrimum K000425796

    First published in Flora 28: 85 (1845)

    Accepted by

    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0