1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Vernicia Lour.
      1. Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy Shaw

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Central & S. China to N. Indo-China.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A much-branched monoecious deciduous tree up to 10 m.
    Bark
    Bark smooth, pale grey.
    Wood
    Wood soft, white.
    Shoots
    Young shoots ferruginous pubescent, soon glabrescent.
    Scales
    Perulae lanceolate, up to 2 cm. long, somewhat glutinous.
    Leaves
    Leaves crowded at the tips of the shoots; petiole 5–20(–25) cm. long, pubescent at first, soon glabrescent; blade broadly ovate, rarely (on vigorous sterile shoots) 3-lobed, (5–)10–20 cm. long, (4–)10–19 cm. wide, subacutely or obtusely acuminate, truncate or shallowly to deeply cordate, usually with (1–)2 circular sessile contiguous glands adaxially at the base, entire, 5–7-nerved from the base, somewhat coriaceous, densely ferruginous pubescent above and beneath at first, tardily glabrescent, dark green and shiny.
    Stipules
    Stipules lanceolate, 4–10 mm. long, subglabrous, readily deciduous leaving fairly prominent scars.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences laxly paniculate, subcorymbiform, branched from the base, usually bisexual, few-flowered, with one terminal ♀ flower and (5–)6–7 lateral 3–7-flowered ♂ cymules, (3–)8–15 cm. long, 10–20 cm. wide; axes sparingly pubescent or subglabrous; bracts linear-lanceolate, 3–8 mm. long, sharply acute, sparingly pubescent.
    Flowers
    Flowers precocious. Female flowers:calyx and petals as in the ♂ flowers; disc-glands smaller (2–3 mm. long) than in the ♂ flowers, sharply acute; ovary ovoid-subglobose, 4(–5)-locular, 4–5 mm. long, 3–4 mm. wide, sparingly pubescent; styles 4(–5), united at the base, 4–5 mm. long, ± glabrous, the stigmas shortly bifid. Male flowers:pedicels 2–3 cm. long, subglabrous; buds ovoid to ovoid-ellipsoid, ± 1 cm. long, apiculate, the calyx rupturing spathaceously almost to the base into 2 unequal lobes, sparingly pubescent without and subglabrous within; petals oblanceolate-obovate, 3–3.3 cm. long, 1–1.2 cm. wide, rounded at the apex, sparingly pubescent without in the lower half, glabrous within, white, suffused and veined with pink, and yellow at the base; disc-glands erect, triangular-lanceolate to subulate, somewhat fleshy, 3–4 mm. long, acute, whitish; stamens 8(–10), united in a column 1.5 cm. high, the outer 5 only half the length of the 3 inner, the filaments and column quite glabrous, anthers ovoid-ellipsoid, 1.75 mm. long.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 2–3 cm. long, subglabrous; buds ovoid to ovoid-ellipsoid, ± 1 cm. long, apiculate, the calyx rupturing spathaceously almost to the base into 2 unequal lobes, sparingly pubescent without and subglabrous within; petals oblanceolate-obovate, 3–3.3 cm. long, 1–1.2 cm. wide, rounded at the apex, sparingly pubescent without in the lower half, glabrous within, white, suffused and veined with pink, and yellow at the base; disc-glands erect, triangular-lanceolate to subulate, somewhat fleshy, 3–4 mm. long, acute, whitish; stamens 8(–10), united in a column 1.5 cm. high, the outer 5 only half the length of the 3 inner, the filaments and column quite glabrous, anthers ovoid-ellipsoid, 1.75 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flowers:calyx and petals as in the ♂ flowers; disc-glands smaller (2–3 mm. long) than in the ♂ flowers, sharply acute; ovary ovoid-subglobose, 4(–5)-locular, 4–5 mm. long, 3–4 mm. wide, sparingly pubescent; styles 4(–5), united at the base, 4–5 mm. long, ± glabrous, the stigmas shortly bifid.
    Fruits
    Fruits ± spherical or slightly compressed, 4–5 cm. long, 3.5–5 cm. wide, apiculate, abruptly narrowed into the base, ± smooth or faintly lineate, glabrous, green at first, dull brown when ripe.
    Seeds
    Seeds broadly compressed-obovoid, 2–2.5 cm. long, 2–2.2 cm. broad, slightly warty and ridged dorsally and ventrally, brownish.
    Figures
    Fig. 35/5.
    Habitat
    Cultivated
    Distribution
    K4 T7 native of SE. Asia (S. China, S. Burma, N. Vietnam), also cultivated in Ethiopia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, U.S.A., Mascarene Is., India and Burmathe ‘Tung Oil Tree’
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 400 - 1500 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Árbol
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    Very like V. montana, but differing in having an appressed golden-sericeous indumentum, sessile discoid glands at the base of the leaf blade, usually bisexual inflorescences, precocious flowers, larger petals (c. 3 cm long), a sparingly-pubescent ovary and smooth or faintly lineate ± spherical fruits.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Hainan, Myanmar, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Arkansas, California, East Himalaya, Florida, Georgia, Korea, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mississippi, Mozambique, New South Wales, North Carolina, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Taiwan, Texas, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Zimbabwe

    Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy Shaw appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Henry, A. [878], China K000959364
    s.coll. [222] K000959363
    Everhard, C.W. [s.n.], China K000959365

    First published in Kew Bull. 20: 394 (1966)

    Accepted by

    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Keller, H.A., Stampella, P.C., Delucchi, G. & Hurrell, J.A. (2013). Vernicia fordii y Aleurites moluccanus (Euphorbiaceae) en la Argentina. Naturalización y etnobotánica Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 48: 553-561.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2009). The family Euphorbiaceae in Sikkim state, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 483-539.
    • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Keller, H.A., Stampella, P.C., Delucchi, G. & Hurrell, J.A. (2013). Vernicia fordii y Aleurites moluccanus (Euphorbiaceae) en la Argentina. Naturalización y etnobotánica Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 48: 553-561.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2009). The family Euphorbiaceae in Sikkim state, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 483-539.
    • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Airy Shaw in Kew Bulletin 20: 394 (1966).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0