1. Family: Sapindaceae Juss.
    1. Cardiospermum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtrop.

    [FTEA]

    Sapindaceae, Davies & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1998

    Habit
    Monoecious annual or sometimes perennial herbaceous or woody climbers, with ribbed stems, some species, including all those in Africa, climbing by means of tendrils
    Leaves
    Leaves variously compound on a trifoliate basis: ternate with deeply 3-lobed leaflets, biternate or (not in Africa) many-times ternately compound or pinnate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, each a branched thyrse; commonly with paired tendrils at the top of the peduncle, which may itself act as a tendril
    Flowers
    Flowers slightly irregular; sepals (in Africa) 4, unequal; petals 4, each with a scale-like appendage directed away from the petal, together forming an additional perianth whorl; disk unilateral, extrastaminal, consisting of two variously-shaped glands Male flowers with 8 dorsifixed stamens and minute pistillode Female flower with 8 staminodes; ovary 3-celled, style trifid
    Male
    Male flowers with 8 dorsifixed stamens and minute pistillode
    Female
    Female flower with 8 staminodes; ovary 3-celled, style trifid
    Fruits
    Fruit an inflated capsule with 3, 1-seeded locules
    Seeds
    Seeds black, globose, the hilum conspicuously white, covered when fresh by an aril.
    [FZ]

    Sapindaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

    Habit
    Annual or rarely perennial climbing herbs (sometimes slightly woody); stems longitudinally ridged.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually stipulate, petiolate, biternately compound to apparently pinnate (in our area).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence an axillary corymbose paniculate thyrse with a pair of coiled tendrils at the apex of the peduncle.
    Flowers
    Flowers spuriously polygamo-dioecious, zygomorphic; bracts scale-like, minute.
    Calyx
    Sepals 4, lateral ones small, anterior and posterior ones larger.
    Corolla
    Petals 4, with scale-like appendages, those of the 2 posterior ones complex in form and sometimes joined to those of the anterior ones.
    Disc
    Disk unilateral, bearing posteriorly 2 glands and elongated anteriorly into a short androgynophore.
    Androecium
    Stamens 8, free or slightly connate at the base; staminodes shorter in the female flowers.
    Pistil
    Ovary 3-locular, loculi 1-ovulate; style 3-fid; pistillode vestigial in male flowers.
    Fruits
    Fruit an inflated membranous capsule.
    Seeds
    Seeds black, globose with a white ovate to reniform hilum.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Guinea, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Ascension, Canary Is., Christmas I., Cook Is., District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., Greece, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Korea, Kriti, Madeira, Missouri, New Caledonia, Nicobar Is., Niue, North Carolina, Rodrigues, South China Sea, Spain, St.Helena, Tennessee, Turkey, Vanuatu, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., Yugoslavia

    Cardiospermum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 366 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Radlk. in Engl. Pflanzenr. Sapindac. 370 (1932).
    • —F.T.A. 1: 417
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 171 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 366 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Radlk. in E.P. IV, 165: 370 (1932)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 171 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 366 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0