1. Family: Salicaceae Mirb.
    1. Genus: Flacourtia Comm. ex L'Hér.
      1. Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa, Hainan to Tropical Asia.

    [FTEA]

    Flacourtiaceae, H. Sleumer (Rijksherbarium, Leiden). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

    Habit
    Shrub or tree, generally spiny, up to 10 m. tall; bark rough; spines of the trunk sometimes branched, up to 12 cm. long.
    Indumentum
    Vegetative parts varying from glabrous to densely pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves also variable in shape and size; blade ovate or elliptic, sometimes suborbicular or obovate, apex obtusely acuminate, obtuse or rounded, base cuneate to rounded, membranous to almost coriaceous, serrulate-crenate, or more rarely subentire, 2.5–12(–16) cm. long, 2–8 cm. broad; lateral nerves 4–7 pairs, slightly prominent on both faces, as is the ± dense reticulation; petiole up to 2 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers dioecious, or occasionally bisexual (1 or several branches of a ♀ specimen with perfect flowers, which, however, bear fewer stamens than in the ♂ ones). Male flowers in axillary racemes 0.5–2 cm. long; pedicels slender, ± pubescent, up to 1 cm. long, the basal bracts minute and caducous. Female flowers in short racemes or solitary; pedicels up to 5 mm.
    Male
    Male flowers in axillary racemes 0.5–2 cm. long; pedicels slender, ± pubescent, up to 1 cm. long, the basal bracts minute and caducous. Sepals broadly ovate, apex acute to rounded, pubescent on both sides, 1.5–2–5 mm. long and broad. Filaments 2–2.5 mm. long; anthers 0.5 mm. long. Disk lobulate.
    Calyx
    Sepals broadly ovate, apex acute to rounded, pubescent on both sides, 1.5–2–5 mm. long and broad.
    Stamens
    Filaments 2–2.5 mm. long; anthers 0.5 mm. long.
    Disc
    Disk lobulate, clasping the base of the ovoid ovary. Disk lobulate.
    Pistil
    Styles 4–8, central, connate at the base, spreading, up to 1.5 mm. long; stigmas truncate.
    Female
    Styles 4–8, central, connate at the base, spreading, up to 1.5 mm. long; stigmas truncate. Female flowers in short racemes or solitary; pedicels up to 5 mm. Disk lobulate, clasping the base of the ovoid ovary.
    Fruits
    Fruit globular, reddish to reddish black when ripe, fleshy, up to 2.5 cm. across, with persistent styles, up to 10-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds 8–10 mm. long, 4–7 mm. broad; testa rugose, pale brown.
    Figures
    Fig. 20.
    Habitat
    Woodland, wooded grassland and bushland, often riparian; 0–2400 m.
    Distribution
    K2 K3 K4 K5 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 widespread in tropical and subtropical Africa, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Seychelles, also in Asia and Malesia, sometimes cultivated for its edible though acid fruits, or escaped from cultivation
    [FZ]

    Flacourtiaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree up to 10 m. tall, with the bark rough and yellowish or orange-brown, occasionally silvery on young branches; axillary straight spines present or absent on the branches, sometimes with fearsome branching spines up to 12 cm. long on the trunk near the base or with very spiny coppice shoots.
    Indumentum
    All the vegetative parts except the older branches vary from quite glabrous to densely pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina 2.5–12 x 1.3–7.5 cm., very variable, membranous or coriaceous, suborbicular, ovate, elliptic, obovate or ovate-elliptic, apex rounded, obtusely or rarely obtusely acuminate at the apex, base usually cuneate, occasionally rounded, margins crenate, crenate-serrulate or subentire, nerves in 4–7 pairs, slightly prominent above and below, venation laxly reticulate; petiole up to 1.3 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers dioecious or occasionally bisexual in short axillary racemes or occasionally solitary in the axils; peduncles very short; rhachis up to 2 cm. long, ± pubescent; pedicels up to 1 cm. long, ± pubescent, with caducous, deltoid, pubescent bracts at the base. Female flowers with a lobulate, fleshy, glabrous disk clasping the base of the ovary; ovary ovoid, glabrous; styles 4–8, 0.5–1.5 mm. long, spreading, longitudinally grooved above; stigmas truncate. Bisexual flowers similar to the female but with c. S stamens. Male flower with very numerous stamens on filaments c. 2.5 mm. long, often with lobulate, glabrous glands forming a disk around the outer stamens.
    Calyx
    Sepals 1.5–2.5 x 1.5–2.5 mm., imbricate, united for about 1 mm. at the base, broadly ovate, acute or rounded at the apex, pubescent on both sides.
    Male
    Male flower with very numerous stamens on filaments c. 2.5 mm. long, often with lobulate, glabrous glands forming a disk around the outer stamens.
    Female
    Female flowers with a lobulate, fleshy, glabrous disk clasping the base of the ovary; ovary ovoid, glabrous; styles 4–8, 0.5–1.5 mm. long, spreading, longitudinally grooved above; stigmas truncate.
    Hermaphrodite
    Bisexual flowers similar to the female but with c. S stamens.
    Fruits
    Fruit reddish or reddish-black when ripe, up to 2.5 cm. in diam., fleshy, globose, becoming sulcate when dry, glabrous, with persistent styles, up to 10-seeded or thereabouts.
    Seeds
    Seeds c. 8 x 7 mm., obovoid and somewhat flattened; testa pale brown, rugose.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1500 m.
    Habit
    Árbol

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, Comoros, Congo, Ethiopia, Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Rwanda, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Bahamas, Chad, Dominican Republic, Hawaii, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mauritius, Nicobar Is., Puerto Rico, Réunion, Society Is.

    Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 1994 Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000231254 holotype
    May 1, 1994 Kerr, A.F.G. [1700], Thailand K000591192 holotype
    May 1, 1994 Kerr, A.F.G. [1700], Thailand K000591193 isotype
    Jan 1, 1973 Pichi-Sermolli, R. [2039], Ethiopia K000231255 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1957 Erens, J. [422], Botswana K000489295
    Jan 1, 1957 Erens, J. [422], Botswana K000489296
    Jan 1, 1957 Shantz, H.L. [390], Botswana K000489294
    Jan 1, 1957 Son, G. van [28842], Botswana K000489297
    Nov 1, 1953 Cole [47], Tamil Nadu K000591204
    Nov 1, 1953 s.coll. [s.n.], Tamil Nadu K000591203
    Nov 1, 1953 Tsang, W.T. [425], Hainan K000591209 isotype
    Nov 1, 1953 Balansa, B. [3165], Vietnam K000591195
    Nov 1, 1953 Thorel, M. [9049] K000591194
    Jan 1, 1953 s.coll. [s.n.] K000591205
    Jan 1, 1953 s.coll. [13/0] K000591206
    Jan 1, 1953 s.coll. [s.n.] K000591208
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10699], Tanzania 16190.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [2790A], Zambia 21814.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10699], Tanzania 35450.000
    McWhirter, J. [145], Madagascar 32208.000
    Davis, A.P. [APD 2513], Madagascar 64177.000
    Smith, P.A. [1787], Botswana K000489298
    Harris, T. [139], Mozambique K000545119
    Timberlake, J. [s.n.], Malawi K000614805
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6677] Flacourtia ramontchi K001124498
    Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 6676], India Flacourtia sepiaria K001124496
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 6676] Flacourtia sepiaria K001124497
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676] Flacourtia sepiaria K001124490
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676] Flacourtia sepiaria K001124491
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676] Flacourtia sepiaria K001124492
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676], India Flacourtia sepiaria K001124493
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676], India Flacourtia sepiaria K001124494
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6676], India Flacourtia sepiaria K001124495
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6675], India Flacourtia sapida K001124481
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6675], India Flacourtia sapida K001124482
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6675], India Flacourtia sapida K001124483
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6675], India Flacourtia sapida K001124486
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124477
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124478
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124479
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124480
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124484
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124485
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124487
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124488
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6675] Flacourtia sapida K001124489

    First published in Interpr. Herb. Amboin.: 377 (1917)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Toyama, H. & al. (2013). Inventory of the woody flora in Permanent plats of Kampong Thom and Kompong Chhnang provinces, Cambodia Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 64: 45-105.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Streliztia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Killick, D.J.B. (1976). Flacourtiaceae (including Samydaceae) Flora of Southern Africa 22: 53-92. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
    • Sleumer, H. (1975). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Flacourtiaceae: 1-68.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Bamps, P. (1968). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Flacourtiaceae (1): 1-61. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Chakrabarty, T. (2010). The family Flacourtiaceae in Sikkim state, India - A synopsis Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 785-787.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Streliztia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Killick, D.J.B. (1976). Flacourtiaceae (including Samydaceae) Flora of Southern Africa 22: 53-92. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Exell in Flora Zambesiaca 3: 141, Addenda (1970).
    • Bamps in Flore du Congo Belge, du Ruanda et du Burundi, Flacourt.: 48 (1968).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 265 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 226 (1961).
    • Wild in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 286, t. 47/B (1960).
    • Palgrave, Trees Centr. Afr.: 189, photo. & t. (1957).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 148 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 231 (1949).
    • Gilg in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 21: 440, fig. 201 (1925).
    • Merrill, Interpret. Rumph. Herb. Amboina: 377 (1917).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0