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This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe, Medit. to Sahara and Xinjiang.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Erect glabrous annual up to 30 cm high
Morphology Stem
Stem simple, 4-angled, narrowly winged
Morphology Leaves
Leaves in 2‒4 (rarely up to 6) pairs below the lowermost inflorescence-branch, oblong to narrowly ovate-oblong, obtuse, 0.5‒2 cm long, up to 0.6 cm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers pink, pedicellate in a loose terminal cyme, cyme-branches spreading at a wide angle
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobes 5 (in depauperate plants sometimes 4), linear-subulate, ± 5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla-tube ± 10 mm long, limb 5- (rarely 4) -lobed, lobes narrowly ovate-oblong, ± 4.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted in throat
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma distinctly 2-branched
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule about as long as calyx.
Ecology
Barren plain, sometimes salty, gypsaceous dry hills, fields, roadsides, banks of irrigation ditch, dry shady mountain slopes, sometimes by spring or near water; up to 1500 m alt.
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: Apr.–Jul.
Distribution
Europe, N and NE Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Sinai, Ethiopia, Somalia), Arabia, Socotra, Cyprus, Turkey, Caucasus, Iran, Baluchistan, Afghanistan, NW India to China and Mongolia; introduced in North America. Common in steppe region of Iraq, extending up into the forest zone and down into the desert region.
Note
Dwarf Centaury. Bové records the name SEMOUM (SIMŪM) from Sinai (Bové 90).

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual, up to c. 20 cm tall, often branched near the base
Morphology Leaves
Basal leaves oblong-spathulate, obtuse or rounded at the apex, sometimes forming loose rosettes; stem leaves oblong, 5–30 x 3–15 mm, obtuse to shortly acute at the apex, narrowing±abruptly at the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in ± many-flowered cymes or sometimes solitary; pedicels up to 5(–17) mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes 7–9 mm long, linear-subulate, a little shorter than the corolla-tube, narrowing into a fine point at the apex, keeled on the back
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla pink or occasionally white; tube 8–12 mm long, slightly narrowed near the apex; lobes 3–5.5 mm long, obtuse to subacute at the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary narrowly oblong; stigma-lobes oblong
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule c. 10–12 x 2–2.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 0.3 x 0.2 mm, pitted.
Distribution
N1, 2 Socotra, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, North Africa, Europe and eastwards to China, introduced in North America.
Ecology
Altitude range 1400–1600 m.
Note
The distinction between C. pulchellum and C. tenuiflorum (Hoffmanns. & Link) Fritsch, another widespread annual species, needs further study.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, Hainan, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Niger, North Caucasus, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Qinghai, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bermuda, Brazil South, Chile South, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Falkland Is., Illinois, Iowa, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Brunswick, New Jersey, New York, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Peru, Primorye, Québec, South Dakota, Texas, Uruguay, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming

Centaurium pulchellum (Sw.) Hayek ex Hand.-Mazz., Stadlm., Janch. & Faltis appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 56: 70 (1906)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Autrey, J.C., Bosser, J. & Ferguson, I.K. (eds.) (2005). Flore des Mascareignes 121-126: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barger, T.W. & al. (2012). New and noteworthy records for the flora of Alabama Castanea 77: 257-269.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Bergmeier, E., Blockeel, T., Böhling, N., Fournaraki, C., Gotsiou, P., Jahn, R., Lansdown, R. & Turland, N. (2011). An inventory of the vascular plants and bryophytes of Gavdopoula island (S Aegean, Greece) and its phytogeographical significance Willdenowia 41: 179-189.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hadinec, J. & Lustyk, P. (2009). Additions to the flora of the Czech Republic. VIII. Zprávy Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 44: 185-319.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Omer, S. (1995). Flora of Pakistan 197: 1-172. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Sluschny, H. & Schlüter, U. (2012). Zur Flora von Schwerin und Umgebung Botanischer Rundbrief für Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 49: 51-59.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Boulos, Fl. Egypt 2: 206 (2000);
  • Druce Fl. Berks. 342 (1897)
  • Jakobsen in Davis, Fl. Turk. 6: 180 (1978);
  • Nábělek in Publ. Fac. Sci. Univ. Masaryk 70: 12 (1926);
  • Omer in Ali & Qaiser, Fl. Pak. 197: 9 (1995);
  • Rech. f., Fl. Lowland Iraq: 477 (1964);
  • Tackh., Stud. Fl. Egypt 186 (1956);
  • Thulin in Fl. Somalia 3: 115 (2006).
  • Zohary in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 31: 116 (1950);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Autrey, J.C., Bosser, J. & Ferguson, I.K. (eds.) (2005). Flore des Mascareignes 121-126: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Barger, T.W. & al. (2012). New and noteworthy records for the flora of Alabama Castanea 77: 257-269.
  • Bergmeier, E., Blockeel, T., Böhling, N., Fournaraki, C., Gotsiou, P., Jahn, R., Lansdown, R. & Turland, N. (2011). An inventory of the vascular plants and bryophytes of Gavdopoula island (S Aegean, Greece) and its phytogeographical significance Willdenowia 41: 179-189.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Charkevicz, S.S. (ed.) (1995). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 7: 1-394. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Schiman-Czeiha, H. (1967). Flora Iranica 41: 1-28. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Vanderhorst, J.P. & al. (2019). Noteworthy collections: West Virginia Castanea 84: 12-23.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Iraq
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0