1. Family: Sapotaceae Juss.
    1. Synsepalum (A.DC.) Daniell

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Sapotaceae, J. H. Hemsley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    Trees or shrubs with reddish-brown subglabrous shoots
    Stipules
    Stipules absent
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly terminal, shortly petiolate and glabrous; lamina ± coriaceous, tapering to a narrowly cuneate base; primary lateral nerves arcuate ascending, usually conspicuous on lower surface, secondary lateral nerves absent or present, veins reticulate
    Flowers
    Flowers congested in axils of older leaves or cauliflorous on small warty projections
    Inflorescences
    Pedicels short and sturdy
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, connate into a short ± campanulate tube; lobes small, ± ovate or rounded
    Corolla
    Corolla-lobes 5, usually reflexing, connate into a short basal tube
    Stamens
    Stamens 5; filaments inserted at throat, ± erect, short, as long as or a little longer than anthers; anthers ovate-cordate, apiculate
    Staminodes
    Staminodes present, small, ± triangular to oblong, denticulate
    Pistil
    Ovary ± ovoid to conical, pilose, 5-locular; style robust, exserted
    Fruits
    Fruit a narrowly ovoid to subglobose berry with stalk sometimes thick and woody
    Seeds
    Seed solitary, ellipsoid and slightly flattened; testa shiny brown with prominent pale rough lateral scar covering two-thirds or more of surface area; endosperm absent; cotyledons fleshy, plano-convex; radicle basal.
    [FZ]

    Sapotaceae, F. K. Kupicha. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Habit
    Trees and shrubs.
    Stipules
    Stipules absent.
    Leaves
    Leaves moderately coriaceous, glabrous; lateral nerves fairly distant, curving towards apex.
    Flowers
    Flowers fascicled in axils of current and fallen leaves, pedicellate.
    Calyx
    Calyx of 5 sepals, united up to 1/2 their length.
    Corolla
    Corolla lobes equalling or longer than tube.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at mouth of tube; filaments short, anthers erect, extrorse.
    Staminodes
    Staminodes present, very small, ± oblong, dentate at apex.
    Ovary
    Ovary ovoid or narrowly conical, pilose with short style.
    Fruits
    Fruit a fleshy red 1·seeded berry with calyx persisting at base.
    Seeds
    Seed ellipsoid, with wide scar extending the length of the seed; endosperm absent, cotyledons thick and fleshy.
    [FZ]

    Sapotaceae, F. K. Kupicha. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Habit
    Trees and shrubs.
    Stipules
    Stipules present, persistent or caducous.
    Leaves
    Leaves moderately coriaceous, lateral nerves fairly conspicuous, distant, curving towards leaf apex.
    Flowers
    Flowers 5–merous, fascicled or solitary, borne in axils of current and fallen leaves, long–pedicellate or sessile.
    Calyx
    Calyx of small sepals ± free to the base.
    Corolla
    Corolla much exceeding calyx, lobes longer or shorter than tube.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at level of base of corolla lobes, with long slender filaments or subsessile; anthers extrorse or introrse.
    Staminodes
    Staminodes present or absent.
    Ovary
    Ovary ovoid, densely long–pilose, with slender style.
    Fruits
    Fruit a 1–seeded berry.
    Seeds
    Seed compressed–ellipsoid; scar long, occupying lateral face; endosperm absent, cotyledons fleshy.
    [FTEA]

    Sapotaceae, J. H. Hemsley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    Shrubs or trees
    Stipules
    Stipules present, subulate and flattened to filiform, persistent or caducous
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate; lamina with lateral nerves ascending, raised and conspicuous on lower surface, secondary nerves absent, veins reticulate or oblique
    Flowers
    Flowers congested in axils of current or fallen leaves, borne on long slender pedicels
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, free to base, much smaller than petals, pilose externally especially at thickened apex
    Corolla
    Corolla-lobes 5, strongly reflexed in old flowers; tube very short or nil
    Stamens
    Stamens 5; filaments slender, ± equal to length of corolla; anthers ovate-cordate, apiculate
    Staminodes
    Staminodes well-developed, subulate, margin entire or denticulate
    Pistil
    Ovary ovoid or subglobose, very densely pilose with long straight hairs, 5-locular; style slender
    Fruits
    Fruit an ellipsoid berry, glabrous or puberulous
    Seeds
    Seed solitary, ± ellipsoid; testa thin and brittle; scar lateral; endosperm scanty or absent; cotyledons fleshy, plano-convex; radicle basal.
    [FZ]

    Sapotaceae, F. K. Kupicha. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Habit
    Shrubs and trees.
    Stipules
    Stipules present, rigid, persistent.
    Leaves
    Leaves coriaceous; lateral nerves fairly distant, curving towards leaf apex; tertiary venation inconspicuous.
    Flowers
    Flowers 5–merous, fascicled in axils of current and fallen leaves, sessile or pedicellate.
    Calyx
    Calyx segments shortly united at the base.
    Corolla
    Corolla lobes longer than tube.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at level of base of corolla lobes, with long flexuous filaments; anthers extrorse, included in to considerably exserted from corolla.
    Staminodes
    Staminodes absent or present and then often irregular in shape and number.
    Pistil
    Ovary ± ovoid, pilose; style long, cylindrical.
    Fruits
    Fruit a 1·seeded berry.
    Seeds
    Seed compressed–ellipsoid, the scar covering more than half its surface; endosperm absent, cotyledons fleshy.
    [FTEA]

    Sapotaceae, J. H. Hemsley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    Shrubs or trees
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly terminal Leaf-lamina coriaceous; primary nerves arcuate-ascending, not closely spaced, raised and conspicuous on lower surface, secondary nerves present or absent; veins oblique or reticulate
    Stipules
    Stipules present, linear-subulate or setose, rigid, persistent
    Petiole
    Petioles short
    Flowers
    Flowers congested in older leaf axils, or cauliflorous, sessile or pedicellate
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, imbricate, shortly connate at base or ± free
    Corolla
    Corolla-lobes connate at base, spreading
    Stamens
    Stamens 5; filaments inserted at throat, subequal to corolla-lobes in length, flexuous
    Staminodes
    Staminodes present or absent, irregular in number and variable in shape
    Pistil
    Ovary ± ovoid, pilose, 5-locular; style long, robust and ± dilated near apex or slender and tapering to apex; stigma with 5-papillae, 5-furrowed or simple
    Fruits
    Fruit a subglobose, ovoid or ellipsoid berry, with persistent style; pericarp fleshy
    Seeds
    Seed solitary, ovoid or ellipsoid; testa with prominent scar covering at least half of surface area; endosperm absent; cotyledons fleshy, plano-convex; radicle basal.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Trinidad-Tobago

    Synsepalum (A.DC.) Daniell appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [9066], Cameroon K000749696
    Jan 1, 1990 Thomas, D.W. [2802], Cameroon K000029727
    Jan 1, 1988 Thomas, D.W. [7355], Cameroon K000029726
    Troupin, G. [3838], Congo, DRC Vincentella 986.000

    First published in Pharm. J. Trans. 11: 446 (1852)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Pennington, D. (2001 publ. 2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Sapotaceae: 1-364. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 23: 291 (1943).
    • —Baill. Hist. Pl. 11: 286 (1892)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0