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This species is accepted, and its native range is Venezuela to S. South America. It is used as animal food.
Bromus catharticus

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 1000 - 4000 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 4000 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 80-100 cm long. Leaf-sheaths pubescent. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 10-30 cm long; 3-8 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong; effuse; 10-40 cm long. Panicle branches flexuous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 6-12 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 16-40 mm long; 4-10 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes obscured by lemmas.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 6-12 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 16-40 mm long; 4-10 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes obscured by lemmas.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 10-15 mm long; 0.9 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 5-9 -veined. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 11-17 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 9-13 -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile florets imbricate to tip. Fertile lemma oblong; laterally compressed; 12-20 mm long; 3-7 mm wide; chartaceous; much thinner on margins; keeled; distinctly keeled; 9-13 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous; rough on veins. Lemma apex lobed; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; 1-9 mm long overall. Palea 0.7-0.7 length of lemma. Palea keels ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3; 0.5-4 mm long. Ovary with a fleshy appendage above style insertion; pubescent on apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; hairy at apex; apex fleshy. Hilum linear.
Distribution
Europe: southwestern and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and middle Atlantic ocean. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India and Malesia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, and north-central. North America: eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
Reference
Bromeae. Acedo 1996.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
cebadilla, cebadilla criolla, criolla, hierba de perro, maleza de perro, paja de perro, pajaeperro, pasto blanco, pasto rescate, triguillo, yerba de perro, vendeaguja de montaña

[UPB]
Use Animal Food Grains & Cereals
Eaten by animals (State of the World's Plants 2016).

Doubtfully present in:

Cyprus

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Ecuador, Juan Fernández Is., Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alberta, Algeria, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Azores, Belgium, Bermuda, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chatham Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colorado, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Egypt, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Florida, France, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Illinois, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Korea, Kriti, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Louisiana, Madeira, Maryland, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Namibia, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Portugal, Primorye, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, Utah, Victoria, Virginia, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Zimbabwe

Bromus catharticus Vahl appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jul 21, 1988 Bolivia (La Paz) K001471797
Jul 21, 1988 Bolivia (La Paz) K001471798
Mathews [717] K000308517
Riedel [2147], Brazil K001101252
Douglas [222], USA K000795108 holotype
Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001101253
Dombrowski, L.T.D. [492], Brazil K001101245
Dombrowski, L.T. [5083], Brazil K001101246
Kuhlmann, M. [s.n.], Brazil K001101251
Triana, J. [299], Colombia K001101254
Sendulsky, T. [950], Brazil K001101247
Clayton, W.D. [4417], Brazil K001101250
Dombrowski, L.T. [2076], Brazil K001101244
Lanna, J.P. [1647], Brazil K001101249
Dombrowski, L.T. [5461], Brazil K001101242
Ferreira, F.M. [1228], Brazil K001101255
Lindeman, J.C. [2666], Brazil K001101243
Smith, L.B. [12919], Brazil K001101248
Colombia K001471758
Colombia K001471759
Colombia K001471760
Colombia K001471761
Colombia K001471762
Wood, J.R.I. [4399], Colombia K001471763
Colombia K001471764
Venezuela K001471765
Venezuela K001471766
Venezuela K001471767
Venezuela K001471768
Venezuela K001471769
Ecuador K001471770
Ecuador K001471771
Ecuador K001471772
Ecuador K001471773
Ecuador K001471774
Ecuador K001471775
Ecuador K001471776
Ecuador K001471777
Peru K001471778
Peru K001471779
Peru K001471780
Peru K001471781
Peru K001471782
Peru K001471783
Peru K001471784
Peru K001471785
Peru K001471786
Peru K001471787
Peru K001471788
Peru K001471789
Peru K001471790
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471791
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471792
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471793
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471794
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471795
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471796
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471799
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471800
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471801
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471802
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471803
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471804
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471805
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471806
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471807
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471808
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471809
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471810
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471811
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471812
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471813
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471814
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471815
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471816
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471817
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471818
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471819
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471820
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471821
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471822
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471823
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471824
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471825
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471826
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471827
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471828
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471829
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471830
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471831
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471832
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471833
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471834
Bolivia (La Paz) K001471835
Bolivia (Oruro) K001471836
Bolivia (Oruro) K001471837
Bolivia (Oruro) K001471838
Bolivia (Oruro) K001471839
Bolivia (Oruro) K001471840
Bolivia (Potosi) K001471841
Bolivia (Potosi) K001471842
Bolivia (Potosi) K001471843
Bolivia (Potosi) K001471844
Bolivia (Potosi) K001471845
Bolivia (Potosi) K001471846
Bolivia (Potosi) K001471847
Bolivia (Potosi) K001471848
Bolivia (Tarija) K001471849
Bolivia (Tarija) K001471850
Bolivia (Tarija) K001471851
Bolivia (Tarija) K001471852
Spruce, R. [5816], Ecuador Bromus unioloides K000201591
Spruce, R. [5815], Ecuador Bromus unioloides K000201590
Lechler [1570], Peru Bromus unioloides K000308513
Spruce, R. [5816], Ecuador Bromus unioloides K000201592

First published in Symb. Bot. 2: 22 (1791)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dickoré, W.B. & Springer, S. (2016). Weitere Notizen zur Flora von München Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der Heimischen Flora 86: 262-276.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Naderi, R. & Rahiminejad, M.R. (2015). A taxonomic revision of the genus Bromus (Poaceae) and a new key to the tribe Bromeae in Iran Annales Botanici Fennici 52: 233-248.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dickoré, W.B. & Springer, S. (2016). Weitere Notizen zur Flora von München Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der Heimischen Flora 86: 262-276.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae Candollea 47: 113-179.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Naderi, R. & Rahiminejad, M.R. (2015). A taxonomic revision of the genus Bromus (Poaceae) and a new key to the tribe Bromeae in Iran Annales Botanici Fennici 52: 233-248.
  • Nobis, M. & Mowak, A. (2011). New data on the vascular flora of the central Pamir Alai mountains (Tajikistan, central Asia) Polish Botanical Journal 56: 195-201.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Saarela, J.M., Peterson, P.M. & Váldes-Reyna, J. (2014). A taxonomic revision of Bromus (Poaceae: Pooideae: Bromeae) in México and Central America Phytotaxa 185(1): 1-147.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0