1. Family: Geraniaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Geranium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Geranium macrorrhizum L.

        An easily grown and attractive perennial, Geranium macrorrhizum has a thick, succulent rhizome (underground stem) and soft, deeply divided, aromatic leaves. The flowers are produced in the spring and summer, and have a reddish calyx and pink, reddish-purple or rarely white petals. The specific epithet macrorrhizum refers to its large rhizome.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    Geranium macrorrhizum is an aromatic perennial with attractive soft leaves and pink or purplish flowers, and provides good ground cover.

    Geranium macrorrhizum has a thick, succulent rhizome (underground stem) and soft, deeply divided, aromatic leaves. The flowers are produced in the spring and summer, and have a reddish calyx and pink, reddish-purple or rarely white petals. The specific epithet macrorrhizum refers to its large rhizome.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Native to Europe (from France to Greece and Romania), where it is found in the southern Alps, Apennines, Balkan Peninsula and Carpathians. It is occasionally found as a garden escape in Great Britain and elsewhere.

    Description

    The rhizome (underground stem) is thick and fleshy, and creeping when reaching the surface. The leaves are aromatic, soft and minutely velvety, around 7 cm across, deeply divided into 5-7 lobes and are borne on stalks of around 10 cm long. The leaves become reddish in the autumn. The flowers are borne on branching stems of up to 30 cm tall. Each flower is 1.5-2 cm across, with five rounded, pinkish-purple, pink or rarely white petals and a reddish calyx.

    The cultivar Geranium macrorrhizum 'Album' has white flowers with a reddish calyx. It was first found in the Rhodope Mountains in Bulgaria, but is now naturalised elsewhere (including in Great Britain), having escaped from cultivation. G. macrorrhizum 'Bevan's Variety' has large, bright reddish flowers, while G. macrorrhizum 'Variegatum' has irregular cream markings on the leaves. There is also a variety called 'White-Ness', sometimes cultivated, with a green calyx and white petals.

    Threats and conservation

    Geranium macrorrhizum is common in rocky woods in mountains, and is not considered to be threatened.

    Uses

    A very useful ornamental for ground cover under shrubs, or for other dry, shady places where little else will survive. Geranium macrorrhizum thrives in dry or moist places, in sun or shade, and is excellent for attracting bees. It can become slightly invasive in some gardens, but is easily kept in check by cutting through the rhizomes using a spade.

    In Bulgaria, G. macrorrhizum is widely grown as a cultural symbol associated with health and good luck.

    It is the source of Zdravetz oil, which is used in traditional medicine as both a stimulant and as a carminative, and is also used as a fixative in perfumery. Zdravetz is a Bulgarian word meaning 'health'. The essential oils found in both the aerial parts and rhizomes have been shown to have antibacterial activity.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: Two

    Cultivation

    Easily grown in dry locations in partial shade. In cooler parts of northern Europe it performs best in full sun. Geranium macrorrhizum can be propagated easily by dividing and replanting the rhizomes in autumn or spring.

    This species at Kew

    Geranium macrorrhizum can be seen growing alongside the Rock Garden and in the Queen's Garden (adjacent to Kew Palace).

    Kew at the RHS Chelsea Flower Show 2011

    In 2011, Kew partnered with The Times to produce a show garden to showcase the significance of plants to science and society.

    The garden, designed by Chelsea gold medallist Marcus Barnett, featured species chosen to demonstrate both beauty and utility, including medicinal, commercial, and industrial uses to underline the fact that plants are invaluable to our everyday lives - without them, none of us could live on this planet; they produce our food, clothing and the air that we breathe.

    There were several Geranium species - and cultivars of Geranium species - featuring in Kew's garden at Chelsea, which was awarded a Silver Medal. A cultivar is a cultivated variant of a species, which is often called a 'variety' in the horticultural trade. Cultivars usually have characteristics that make them more desirable to growers, for example a carrot that is sweeter than its wild relative or a rose with less thorns than its wild counterpart.

    Ecology
    Rocky places on limestone, often in shade.
    Conservation
    Not considered to be threatened, but not yet evaluated according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    None.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Italy, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Belgium, Chile Central, Czechoslovakia, Great Britain, Krym, Ukraine

    Common Names

    English
    Rock crane's-bill

    Geranium macrorrhizum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Pejovic, K. [932 - 6], Montenegro K000729325

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 680 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Özhatay, F.N., Kültür, S. & Gürdal, M.B. (2011). Check-list of additional taxa to the supplement Flora of Turkey V Turkish Journal of Botany 35: 589-624.
    • Essl, F. & Follak, S. (2010). Bemerkenswerte floristische Funde aus Wien, Niederösterreich, dem Burgenland und der Steiermarck, teil VI Stapfia 92: 15-20.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.

    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles
    • Radulovic, N.S., Dekic, M.S., Stojanovic-Radic, Z.Z. & Zoranic, S.K. (2010). Geranium macrorrhizum L. (Geraniaceae) essential oil: a potent agent against Bacillus subtilis. Chem. & Biodivers. 7(11): 2783-2800.
    • Ploetz, K. & Orr, B. (2004). Wild herb use in Bulgaria. Econ. Bot. 58(2): 231-241.
    • Stace, C. (1997). New Flora of the British Isles, 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • Phillips, R. & Rix, M. (1991). Perennials, Vol. 1. Pan/ Macmillan, London & Firefly, Ontario.
    • Yeo, P. (1985). Hardy Geraniums. Croom Helm, London and Sydney and Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
    • Curtis, S. (1823). Geranium macrorrhizum. Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 50: t. 2420.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Özhatay, F.N., Kültür, S. & Gürdal, M.B. (2011). Check-list of additional taxa to the supplement Flora of Turkey V Turkish Journal of Botany 35: 589-624.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0