1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Aira L.
      1. Aira caryophyllea L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Medit. to African Mountains, Europe to Caucasus, Tibet to W. Himalaya.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annual; culms 3–40 cm. high, loosely tufted or solitary, erect or geniculate.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades filiform or subsetaceous, mostly 1–5 cm. long and up to 1 mm. wide; ligule up to 5 mm. long, becoming lacerate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle loose, ovate to oblong, 1–12 cm. long; branches bare at the base, the spikelets in little clusters towards the tips; pedicels 3/4–3 1/2 times as long as the spikelet, pear-shaped at the tip.
    Spikelets
    Glumes ovate, 2.3–3.5 mm. long (1.8–2.7 mm. in Flora area), acute (but often obtuse in Flora area); lemmas narrowly ovate, 1.2–1.7 mm. long, scaberulous above, acuminately bilobed, with a geniculate awn 2–3 mm. long arising from below the middle, or rarely the lower floret awnless; callus bearded (but usually glabrous or with sparse short hairs in Flora area).
    Figures
    Fig. 29, p. 85.
    Habitat
    Rocky ledges and shallow or well-drained soils in upland grassland and moor; 2100–4500 m.
    Distribution
    K2 K3 K5 T2 T3 T7 U3 South Africa to northern Europe and Asiaintroduced to many other parts of the world
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Slender annual 5–30 cm. high.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect; 3-40(-55) cm long; 2-3 -noded. Leaves mostly basal. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2-5 mm long; erose; obtuse. Leaf-blades filiform; involute; 0.5-5 cm long; 0.3-1 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous. Leaf-blade apex acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; 1-12 cm long; (2-)3.5-10(-14) cm wide. Panicle branches capillary; terete; smooth. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform; terete; 1-10 mm long; tip pyriform.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong to ovate; laterally compressed; 2.4-3.1 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes suppressed between florets (florets arising at about the same level). Floret callus pubescent.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong to ovate; laterally compressed; 2.4-3.1 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes suppressed between florets (florets arising at about the same level). Floret callus pubescent.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; shiny; gaping. Lower glume ovate; 2.4-3.1 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; keeled above; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scaberulous. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 2.4-3.1 mm long; 1.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; keeled above; 1-3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scaberulous. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; laterally compressed; lanceolate in profile; (1.8-)2-2.4(-2.6) mm long; cartilaginous; dark brown; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma surface scaberulous; rough above. Lemma margins involute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn dorsal; arising 0.3-0.4 way up back of lemma; geniculate; 2.6-3.6 mm long overall; with twisted column. Palea elliptic; 0.7 length of lemma; cartilaginous; 2 -veined. Palea apex obtuse.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; lanceolate; membranous. Anthers 3; 0.25-0.6 mm long. Stigmas 2; protandrous; laterally exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; fusiform; isodiametric; biconvex; estipitate; without sulcus; 1 mm long; smooth; apex unappendaged. Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform. Endosperm farinose. Disseminule comprising a floret.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, and southern tropical. Asia-temperate: Caucasus, western Asia, and China. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: south-central and north-central. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, northwest USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, western South America, and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
    Reference
    Aveneae. TAC.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Habit
    A delicate loosely caespitose annual.
    Culms
    Culms 5-30 cm. tall, 1-many-noded, rather slender, almost filiform, erect or ascending from a geniculate base, smooth, glabrous.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf-sheaths slightly longer or slightly shorter than the internodes, striate, tight at first later loose and slipping off the culm, scaberulous along the nerves.
    Ligules
    Ligule up to 4 mm. long, lanceolate-oblong or triangular-oblong, acute to subobtuse, often lacerate.
    Leaves
    Leaf-laminae 2-7 x 0.02-0.06 cm., filiform, subsetaceous, almost always convolute, usually erect, rarely spreading, scaberulous along the nerves on both surfaces and along the margins, glabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 0.9-7.5 cm. long, ovate to oblong or obovate in outline, erect, somewhat contracted or open and loose; rhachis filiform, glabrous, smooth, branches paired or rarely solitary, bearing spikelets in the upper 1/2, very slender, almost capillary.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 2-10 mm. long, capillary.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2.5-4.5 mm. long, ovate to broadly oblong in lateral view, pallid green or silvery-grey, sometimes tinged with purple, slightly glossy.
    Glume
    Glumes 2.75-4.5 mm. long, broadly lanceolate, minutely scaberulous along the keel.
    Lemma
    Lemmas 1.75-2.5 mm. long (excluding the awn), ovate-lanceolate with the apex acute to subobtuse, dorsally asperulous towards the apex; awn 3-4 mm. long, usually brown; callus appressed-pilose.
    Anthers
    Anthers c. 0.3 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis c. 1 mm. long.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., Ethiopia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Krym, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Mauritius, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Sicilia, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, West Himalaya, Yugoslavia, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Chatham Is., Costa Rica, District of Columbia, Falkland Is., Hawaii, Korea, Marquesas, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Tennessee, Tristan da Cunha, Victoria, Western Australia

    Aira caryophyllea L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 2000 Zapfack, L. [1225], Cameroon K000339480
    May 1, 1998 Cheek, M. [8759], Cameroon K000339481
    Nov 1, 1974 Letouzey, R. [13104], Cameroon K000182025
    Jan 1, 1965 Boughey, A.S. [12637], Cameroon K000182050
    Jan 1, 1965 Boughey, A.S. [10646], Cameroon K000182051
    Jan 1, 1963 Boughey, A.S. [6965], Cameroon K000182038
    Jan 1, 1960 Morton, J.K. [769], Cameroon K000182048
    Jan 1, 1935 Maitland, T.D. [1228], Cameroon K000182044
    Jan 1, 1935 Mildbraed, G. W. J. [10908], Cameroon K000182047
    Morton, J.K. [7069], Cameroon K000182037
    Boughey, A.S. [294B], Cameroon K000182041
    Letouzey, R. [13474], Cameroon K000182026
    illegible [206], Sicilia K000808897
    Porta, P. [511], Spain K000808896
    Pavillon, A.H.du [s.n.], Sicilia K000808899
    Quer, P. F. [5], Spain K000808898

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 66 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Lustyk, P. & Doležal, J. (eds.) (2018). Additamenta ad floram Reipublicae Bohemicae - XVI Zprávy Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 53: 31-112.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ibrahim, K.M. & Peterson, P.M. (2014). Grasses of Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 99: 1-128.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 10: 87.
    • Sp. Pl. 66 (1753)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ibrahim, K.M. & Peterson, P.M. (2014). Grasses of Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 99: 1-128.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 16 (1965).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 14 (1960).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 2 (1947).
    • C. E. Hubbard in Flora of Tropical Africa 10: 87 (1937).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 66 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0