1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Aira L.
      1. Aira praecox L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Europe to NW. Turkey.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect; 2-25 cm long; 2-3 -noded. Leaves mostly basal. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1.5-3.5 mm long; entire; obtuse. Leaf-blades filiform; involute; 0.5-5 cm long; 0.3-0.5 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth, or scaberulous. Leaf-blade apex acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear, or oblong; 0.5-4.5 cm long; 0.2-0.8 cm wide. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels linear; terete; 1-3 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong to ovate; laterally compressed; 3-3.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes suppressed between florets (florets arising at about the same level). Floret callus pubescent.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong to ovate; laterally compressed; 3-3.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes suppressed between florets (florets arising at about the same level). Floret callus pubescent.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; shiny; gaping. Lower glume ovate; 3-3.5 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; much thinner above; much thinner on margins; 1-keeled; keeled above; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scaberulous. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 3-3.5 mm long; 1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; keeled above; 1-3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scaberulous. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; laterally compressed; lanceolate in profile; 2.7-3.1 mm long; cartilaginous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma surface scaberulous; rough above. Lemma margins involute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex dentate; 3 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn dorsal; arising 0.3-0.4 way up back of lemma; geniculate; 3.4-4.3 mm long overall; with twisted column. Palea elliptic; 0.7 length of lemma; cartilaginous; 2 -veined. Palea apex obtuse.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; lanceolate; membranous. Anthers 3; 0.25-0.3 mm long. Stigmas 2; protandrous; laterally exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; fusiform; isodiametric; biconvex; estipitate; without sulcus; smooth; apex unappendaged. Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform. Endosperm farinose. Disseminule comprising a floret.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, and eastern. Africa: Macaronesia. Asia-temperate: Caucasus and western Asia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. North America: western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, and southeast USA. South America: southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
    Reference
    Aveneae. TAC.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Azores, Baltic States, Belgium, Canary Is., Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Italy, Krym, Madeira, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey

    Introduced into:

    Argentina South, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Chatham Is., Chile South, Connecticut, Crozet Is., Delaware, Falkland Is., Juan Fernández Is., Kerguelen, Maryland, Masachusettes, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, Nova Scotia, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Australia, Tasmania, Uruguay, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, Western Australia

    Aira praecox L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 355], United Kingdom K000914531

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 65 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Lustyk, P. & Doležal, J. (eds.) (2018). Additamenta ad floram Reipublicae Bohemicae - XVI Zprávy Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 53: 31-112.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0