1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Alopecurus L.
      1. Alopecurus carolinianus Walter

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. & Central Canada to U.S.A.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; caespitose. Culms 10-50 cm long. Culm-internodes distally glabrous. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 3.5-7 mm long. Leaf-blades 3-15 cm long; 1-4 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth, or scaberulous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; 2-6 cm long; 0.4-0.6 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with evident branchlets on axis. Panicle axis with rounded ribs. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 1.8-3 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 1.8-3 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes connate along margins below; 0.25-0.33 of their length connate; similar; reaching apex of florets. Lower glume ovate; 1.8-3 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Lower glume primary vein ciliate. Lower glume margins ciliate. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 1.8-3 mm long; 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein ciliate. Upper glume margins ciliate. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; 1.8-2 mm long; membranous; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma margins connate below. Lemma apex obtuse; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn dorsal; arising 0.1-0.2 way up back of lemma; geniculate; 3-5 mm long overall; with twisted column. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 0.3-0.5 mm long. Stigmas protogynous; terminally exserted; pubescent. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 1-1.4 mm long. Embryo 0.25 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform. Disseminule comprising a spikelet.
    Distribution
    North America: western Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, and southeast USA.
    Reference
    Aveneae. Gr Tex 1993.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Alberta, Arizona, Arkansas, British Columbia, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

    Alopecurus carolinianus Walter appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Fl. Carol.: 74 (1788)

    Accepted by

    • Ibrahim, K.M. & Peterson, P.M. (2014). Grasses of Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 99: 1-128.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Ibrahim, K.M. & Peterson, P.M. (2014). Grasses of Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 99: 1-128.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0