1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Alopecurus L.
      1. Alopecurus japonicus Steud.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Central & S. China, Japan.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; caespitose; clumped densely. Basal innovations intravaginal. Culms geniculately ascending; 20-60 cm long; 1-2 mm diam.; 3-4 -noded. Culm-internodes 2-8 cm long. Leaves basal and cauline. Leaf-sheaths loose; 3-4 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2-4 mm long; white; obtuse. Leaf-blades 3-15 cm long; 3-8 mm wide; glaucous; pruinose. Leaf-blade surface scabrous; rough adaxially; glabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; subtended by an inflated leaf-sheath. Panicle spiciform; linear; 3-10 cm long; 0.5-1 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with evident branchlets on axis. Panicle axis with rounded ribs. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong; 0.3-0.8 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 5-6 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 5-6 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes free; similar; shorter than spikelet; shiny. Lower glume elliptic; 4.2-4.5 mm long; 1.1 length of upper glume; membranous; light green; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Lower glume primary vein ciliate. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 4-4.3 mm long; 0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; light green; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein ciliate. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; 5-6 mm long; membranous; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma margins free, or connate below. Lemma apex obtuse; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn dorsal; arising 0.1 way up back of lemma; geniculate; 10-12 mm long overall; with twisted column. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 1 mm long; pallid, or yellow. Stigmas protogynous; terminally exserted; pubescent. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 2-2.5 mm long. Hilum punctiform. Disseminule comprising a spikelet.
    Distribution
    Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia.
    Reference
    Aveneae. Koyama 1994.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Japan

    Introduced into:

    Korea

    Alopecurus japonicus Steud. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 149 (1854)

    Accepted by

    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0