1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Alopecurus L.
      1. Alopecurus magellanicus Lam.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Subarctic to W. Central U.S.A., Ecuador to S. South America, Subantarctic Islands.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Culms erect; 20-100 cm long; 3-6 -noded. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 4-6 mm long. Leaf-blades 10-35 cm long; 5-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Peduncle tipped by a glumaceous appendage. Panicle spiciform; oblong, or ovate; 1.5-5 cm long; 0.9-1.2 cm wide. Panicle axis with rounded ribs. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 4.5-6 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 4.5-6 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes connate along margins below; 0.5 of their length connate; similar; exceeding apex of florets. Lower glume lanceolate; 4.5-6 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Lower glume primary vein ciliate. Lower glume surface pubescent. Lower glume hairs 1-2 mm long. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 4.5-6 mm long; 1.3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein ciliate. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume hairs 1-2 mm long. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; 3.5-4.5 mm long; membranous; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma margins connate below; with 0.5 of their length connate; ciliolate; hairy above. Lemma apex obtuse; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn dorsal; arising 0.25-0.33 way up back of lemma; geniculate; 4.5-9 mm long overall; with twisted column.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 2.5-3 mm long. Stigmas protogynous; terminally exserted; pubescent. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum punctiform. Disseminule comprising a spikelet.
    Distribution
    Europe: eastern. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, western Asia, and Mongolia. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, and southwest USA. South America: western South America and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
    Reference
    Aveneae. Fl Pat 1995.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rootstock evident. Rhizomes short. Butt sheaths glabrous. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 7-40 cm long; 2 -noded. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-2 mm long; truncate. Leaf-blades 1-7 cm long; 1-4.2 mm wide; dark green. Leaf-blade surface glabrous. Leaf-blade margins scaberulous. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath, or an inflated leaf-sheath. Panicle spiciform, or capitate; ovate; 1-2 cm long; 0.7-1 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with evident branchlets on axis. Panicle axis with rounded ribs. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 3.5-5 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 3.5-5 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes connate along margins below; 0.1 of their length connate; similar; exceeding apex of florets. Lower glume lanceolate; 3.5-5 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; pallid, or grey; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Lower glume primary vein ciliate. Lower glume surface pilose. Lower glume apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn 0.5-1.5 mm long. Upper glume lanceolate; 3.5-5 mm long; 1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; pallid, or grey; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein ciliate. Upper glume surface pilose. Upper glume apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn 0.5-1.5 mm long.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma oblong; 3-4 mm long; membranous; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma surface pilose; hairy above. Lemma margins connate below. Lemma apex truncate; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn dorsal; arising 0.1 way up back of lemma; 0.8-6 mm long overall; not or scarcely exserted from spikelet. Palea 2.5-3.5 mm long. Palea keels ciliate; adorned above.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 2-2.5 mm long. Stigmas terminally exserted; pubescent. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum punctiform. Disseminule comprising a spikelet.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, southwestern, and southeastern. Africa: north. Asia-temperate: western Asia.
    Reference
    Aveneae. Fl Turk 1993.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alaska, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Altay, Amur, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bolivia, British Columbia, California, Chile Central, Chile South, Colorado, East European Russia, Ecuador, Falkland Is., Great Britain, Greenland, Idaho, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Krasnoyarsk, Kuril Is., Labrador, Magadan, Manitoba, Mongolia, Montana, North European Russi, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nunavut, Ontario, Peru, Québec, Saskatchewan, South European Russi, South Georgia, Svalbard, Utah, West Siberia, Wyoming, Yakutskiya, Yukon

    Alopecurus magellanicus Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Chile K000308504
    Chile K000308505
    King [s.n.], Tierra del Fuego(Chile) K000308498
    Lechler, W. [440], Chile K000308503
    Lechler, W. [263], Chile K000308506
    Buchtien, O. Dr. [502], Bolivia K000308502

    First published in Tabl. Encycl. 1: 168 (1791)

    Accepted by

    • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Armemov, I.A. (2012). Opredelitel' Rasteni? Respublika Alta?: 1-640. Novosibirsk: Izd-vo SO RAN.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Armemov, I.A. (2012). Opredelitel' Rasteni? Respublika Alta?: 1-640. Novosibirsk: Izd-vo SO RAN.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Hultén, E.O.G. (1960). Flora of the Aleutian Islands and westernmost Alaska Peninsula: with notes on the flora of Commander Islands, ed. 2: 1-376. Weinheim : J. Cramer ; New York : Hafner Pub. Co.
    • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0