1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Alopecurus L.
      1. Alopecurus pratensis L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Azores, Europe to Mongolian and W. Himalaya.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 30-120 cm long; without nodal roots. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-2.5 mm long. Leaf-blades 6-40 cm long; 3-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth, or scaberulous; rough adaxially.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; 2-13 cm long; 0.5-1 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with evident branchlets on axis. Panicle axis with rounded ribs. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or oblong; laterally compressed; 4-6 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or oblong; laterally compressed; 4-6 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes connate along margins below; similar; reaching apex of florets. Lower glume oblong; 4-6 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Lower glume primary vein ciliate. Lower glume surface pubescent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume oblong; 4-6 mm long; 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein ciliate. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex obtuse.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic, or ovate; 4-6 mm long; membranous; keeled; 4 -veined. Lemma margins connate below. Lemma apex obtuse; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn dorsal; arising 0.2-0.3 way up back of lemma; 6-10 mm long overall; clearly exserted from spikelet. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 2-3.5 mm long. Stigmas protogynous; terminally exserted; pubescent. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum punctiform. Disseminule comprising a spikelet.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north and Macaronesia. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, China, Mongolia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, and southeast USA. South America: western South America and southern South America.
    Reference
    Aveneae. CEH.
    Diagnostic
    Glumes connate only at base.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Cyprus

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Altay, Austria, Azores, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Central European Rus, Chita, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Manchuria, Mongolia, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Amur, Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, Bermuda, British Columbia, California, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, East Himalaya, Føroyar, Georgia, Greenland, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Kerguelen, Khabarovsk, Korea, Labrador, Magadan, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Dakota, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, South Australia, South Dakota, Taiwan, Tasmania, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon, Yukon

    Alopecurus pratensis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Davis, P.H. [33384], Ukraine K000913443
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 66], United Kingdom K000914539
    Ovczinnikov, P.N. [1417] K000913559
    Ovczinnikov, P.N. [1451] K000913560

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 60 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Akhter, C. & al. (2016). Alopecurus pratensis (Poaceae), a new record for the Indian subcontinent from Kashmir himalaya Rheedea 26: 52-53.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Akhter, C. & al. (2016). Alopecurus pratensis (Poaceae), a new record for the Indian subcontinent from Kashmir himalaya Rheedea 26: 52-53.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Roshevitz, R.J. & al. (eds.) (1950). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 2: 1-315. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.
    • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Fedtschenko, B.A. & al. (1932). Flora Turkmenii 1: 1-340. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
    • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0