1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Andropogon L.
      1. Andropogon amethystinus Steud.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula, S. India, Myanmar.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennial, either straggling with wiry rhizomes or in short dense tufts; culms 8–60 cm. high.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 1–15 cm. long, 1–4 mm. wide, flat or convolute with narrow midrib.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes paired, terminal, 2–8 cm. long, purplish; internodes and pedicels linear or the latter slightly clavate, ciliate to villous.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet 5–8.5 mm. long, including a cuneate callus up to 1 mm. long; lower glume narrowly lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, slightly convex to slightly concave on the back, thinly coriaceous to papery, 2–6-nerved between the lateral keels, glabrous to villous, winged or wingless, bidentate; upper glume with an awn 2–6 mm. long; upper lemma bilobed to the middle, with an awn 10–15 mm. long.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet narrowly lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 4–8 mm. long; winged or wingless, with an awn 1–3 mm. long (rarely the second glume with an awn-point). Sessile spikelet 5–8.5 mm. long, including a cuneate callus up to 1 mm. long; lower glume narrowly lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, slightly convex to slightly concave on the back, thinly coriaceous to papery, 2–6-nerved between the lateral keels, glabrous to villous, winged or wingless, bidentate; upper glume with an awn 2–6 mm. long; upper lemma bilobed to the middle, with an awn 10–15 mm. long.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet narrowly lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 4–8 mm. long; winged or wingless, with an awn 1–3 mm. long (rarely the second glume with an awn-point).
    Habitat
    Open places in upland evergreen forest, and in montane grassland and moorland; 2000–3800 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K6 T2 T7 U1 U2 U3 Nigeria and Ethiopia to South AfricaIndia (Nilgiri Hills).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Creeping perennial; culms 50–80 cm high, branched below, reddish.
    Leaves
    Leaves often falcate, sparsely to distinctly pilose; ligule a very short (0.3–0.6 mm) membrane; laminas 4–13 cm × 1.8–3 mm, ± revolute, auriculate at the base, tapering to a fine point at the apex.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes in terminal pairs, 5–6.5 cm long, clearly exserted from the spatheoles only at maturity; peduncles much longer than the racemes; internodes and pedicels ± clavate, glabrous to ciliate on both margins.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets similar; inferior glumes asymmetrical with 2 unequally broad hyaline marginal wings, 2-dentate or 2-mucronate at the apex; superior glumes awned. Sessile spikelet 6–12 mm long; inferior glume flat or with a shallow median groove, rarely slightly convex on the back, winged, minutely pilose or glabrous, often mucronate at the apex; superior glume convex on the back and with an awn 4–5 mm long; superior lemma bifid to about the middle; awn geniculate, 13–14.5 mm long. Pedicelled spikelet male, 6–8 mm long; inferior glume with an awnlet 2–3 mm long; superior glume with a mucro 0.7–1.4 mm long.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet 6–12 mm long; inferior glume flat or with a shallow median groove, rarely slightly convex on the back, winged, minutely pilose or glabrous, often mucronate at the apex; superior glume convex on the back and with an awn 4–5 mm long; superior lemma bifid to about the middle; awn geniculate, 13–14.5 mm long.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet male, 6–8 mm long; inferior glume with an awnlet 2–3 mm long; superior glume with a mucro 0.7–1.4 mm long.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; culms solitary, or caespitose. Rhizomes absent, or elongated. Butt sheaths glabrous. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 8-60 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades flat, or convolute; 1-15 cm long; 1-4 mm wide. Leaf-blade midrib evident.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal. Racemes 2; paired; 2-8 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; ciliate on margins, or villous on margins. Rhachis hairs white. Rhachis internodes linear. Rhachis internode tip transverse; crateriform; with simple rim. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels linear, or clavate; ciliate, or villous; with white hairs.
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate, or ovate; dorsally compressed; 4-8 mm long; as long as fertile; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; wingless, or winged on keels; acute; awned; one glume awned; with 1-3 mm long awn. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate, or elliptic; dorsally compressed; 5-8.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus cuneate; 1 mm long; pilose; base obtuse; inserted.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate, or ovate; dorsally compressed; 4-8 mm long; as long as fertile; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; wingless, or winged on keels; acute; awned; one glume awned; with 1-3 mm long awn. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate, or elliptic; dorsally compressed; 5-8.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus cuneate; 1 mm long; pilose; base obtuse; inserted.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate, or elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; chartaceous, or coriaceous; 2-keeled; keeled laterally; wingless, or winged on keel. Lower glume intercarinal veins distinct; 2-6 in number. Lower glume surface convex, or flat, or concave; glabrous to villous. Lower glume apex dentate; 2 -fid. Upper glume lanceolate; chartaceous; 1-keeled; keeled above. Upper glume awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn 2-6 mm long.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; hyaline; 2 -veined. Fertile lemma oblong; hyaline; without keel. Lemma apex lobed; 2 -fid; incised 0.5 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 10-15 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea hyaline; 0 -veined; without keels.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: Arabia. Asia-tropical: India.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Perennial, tufted or with short underground rhizomes, about 30 cm. high.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Stoloniferous perennial up to about 45 cm. high.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Myanmar, Nigeria, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre

    Andropogon amethystinus Steud. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 1998 Kamundi, D. [694], Cameroon K000339483
    May 1, 1998 Onana, J.-M. [546], Cameroon K000339482
    Jan 1, 1854 Perrotet, G.S. [1315], India K000245810 isotype
    Jan 1, 1854 Perrotet, G.S. [1315], India K000245811 isotype
    Schimper [850], Ethiopia K000280528 isotype
    Schimper [1001] K000280530 isotype
    Volkens [1158] K000280608 isotype
    Pappi, A. [5285], Eritrea K000280527 holotype
    Roth [15] K000280529 holotype

    First published in Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 371 (1854)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 216, partly.
    • Syn. Pl. Glum. 1: 371 (1854)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Robyns, W. (1929). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1: 1-229. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 485 (1972).
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 103 (1965).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 15 (1960).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 59 (1958).
    • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 28 (1958).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 3: 54 (1955).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 2 (1947).
    • Robyns, Fl. Agrost, Congo Belge 1: 129 (1929).
    • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 216 (1919).
    • Steud., Syn. Pl. Glum. 1: 371 (1854).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0