1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Anthoxanthum L.
      1. Anthoxanthum amarum Brot.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is N. & Central Portugal to NW. Spain.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Butt sheaths thickened and forming a bulb. Culms 60-90 cm long. Lateral branches lacking. Leaves mostly basal. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades lanceolate; 8-20 cm long; 6-15 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous. Leaf-blade margins ciliate. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; oblong; 3-10 cm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 10-13 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 10-13 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; shiny. Lower glume ovate; 5-6 mm long; 0.5 length of upper glume; hyaline; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume elliptic; 10-13 mm long; 4 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets dissimilar; barren; without significant palea; attached to and deciduous with the fertile. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; 5-6 mm long; 1.5-2 length of fertile lemma; scarious; without keels; pubescent; lobed; 2 -fid; obtuse; awned. Awn of lower sterile floret dorsal; 4-5 mm long. Lemma of upper sterile floret oblong; 5-6 mm long; 1 length of lower sterile floret; scarious; pubescent; lobed; 2 -fid; obtuse; awned. Awn of upper sterile floret dorsal; geniculate; 7-8 mm long. Fertile lemma orbicular; 2.5-3 mm long; cartilaginous; shiny; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea oblong; 1 length of lemma; 1 -veined; without keels.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 2; 5 mm long. Stigmas 2; protogynous; pubescent.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Europe: southwestern. Asia-temperate: Caucasus.
    Reference
    Aveneae. Fl Eur 1993.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Portugal, Spain

    Introduced into:

    Transcaucasus

    Anthoxanthum amarum Brot. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Fl. Lusit. 1: 32 (1804)

    Accepted by

    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0