1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Anthoxanthum L.
      1. Anthoxanthum aristatum Boiss.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, W. & Central Medit.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; caespitose. Butt sheaths herbaceous; withering. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 10-40 cm long; 4-5 -noded. Lateral branches sparse. Leaves mostly basal. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1.5-3 mm long. Leaf-blades 0.8-6 cm long; 1-5 mm wide; aromatic. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pubescent; hairy adaxially. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; oblong, or ovate; continuous, or interrupted; 1-4 cm long; 0.3-1.2 cm wide. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong; 0.1-0.3 mm long; pubescent.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 5-7.5(-8) mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 5-7.5(-8) mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; shiny. Lower glume ovate; 3.6-5.2 mm long; 0.5-0.6 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scaberulous. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface glabrous. Lower glume apex acuminate; muticous, or mucronate. Upper glume elliptic; 5-7.5(-8) mm long; 2.5-4 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; with hyaline margins; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scabrous. Upper glume surface glabrous. Upper glume apex acuminate; muticous, or mucronate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets dissimilar; barren; without significant palea; attached to and deciduous with the fertile. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; 2.8-3.9 mm long; 1.5-2 length of fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 4-5 -veined; pilose; erose; truncate; awned. Awn of lower sterile floret dorsal; arising 0.6 way up back of lemma; 4-5 mm long. Lemma of upper sterile floret oblong; 3-4 mm long; 1 length of lower sterile floret; membranous; pilose; erose; truncate; awned. Awn of upper sterile floret dorsal; arising 0.1 way up back of lemma; geniculate; 7-10 mm long. Fertile lemma orbicular; (1.4-)1.6-2.1 mm long; cartilaginous; shiny; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea oblong; 1 length of lemma; 1 -veined; without keels.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 2; 2.8-4.1 mm long. Stigmas 2; protogynous; pubescent.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid. Embryo 0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: Macaronesia. Asia-temperate: western Asia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. North America: western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, and southeast USA.
    Reference
    Aveneae. TAC.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Azores, Baleares, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corse, East Aegean Is., France, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Arkansas, Austria, Baltic States, Belgium, British Columbia, California, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Florida, Germany, Great Britain, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Masachusettes, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Netherlands, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Poland, Québec, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Ukraine, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia

    Anthoxanthum aristatum Boiss. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Gandoger, M. [s.n.], Spain K000838017
    Lange, J. [19], Spain K000838014
    Winkler, M. [s.n.], France K000838015
    Reuter, G.F. [s.n.], Spain K000838018
    Reuter, G.F. [s.n.], Spain K000838016
    s.coll. [s.n.], France K000838013
    Galiano, E.F. [s.n.], Spain K000838019 isotype

    First published in Voy. Bot. Espagne 2: 638 (1842)

    Accepted by

    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542. New York Botanical Garden.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Not accepted by

    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST. [Cited as Anthoxanthum odoratum.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0