1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Anthoxanthum L.
      1. Anthoxanthum horsfieldii (Kunth ex Benn.) Reeder

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Assam to China (Guizhou) and New Guinea.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Culms 50-105 cm long. Culm-internodes thin-walled; distally glabrous. Lateral branches lacking, or sparse. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface; outer margin hairy. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.7-2 mm long. Leaf-blades 15-37 cm long; 5-10 mm wide; flaccid; aromatic. Leaf-blade surface glabrous; hairless throughout, or except near base. Leaf-blade margins glabrous, or ciliate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; elliptic; continuous, or interrupted; 3.5-13.5 cm long; 0.7-2.2 cm wide. Primary panicle branches 1-3 -nate; 1.5-5.4 cm long; bearing 5-28 fertile spikelets on each lower branch. Panicle axis glabrous. Panicle branches glabrous, or pubescent. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels pubescent.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 4.5-7.4 mm long; 1.3-2.5 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 4.5-7.4 mm long; 1.3-2.5 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 2.7-5.1 mm long; 0.5-0.9 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume primary vein eciliate, or ciliolate. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume obovate; 4.4-7.3 mm long; 1.6-2.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate, or ciliolate. Upper glume apex acute, or acuminate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets dissimilar; male, or barren; with palea, or without significant palea; attached to and deciduous with the fertile. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; 3.7-6.4 mm long; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined; pubescent; hairy below; ciliate on margins; dentate; 2 -fid; obtuse; awned. Awn of lower sterile floret dorsal; arising 0.6-0.8 way up back of lemma; 0.4-2.75 mm long. Lemma of upper sterile floret oblong; 3.6-5.8 mm long; membranous; pubescent; ciliate on margins; dentate; 2 -fid; obtuse; awned. Awn of upper sterile floret dorsal; arising 0.25-0.5 way up back of lemma; geniculate; 4-9.2 mm long. Fertile lemma oblong; 2.3-3.5 mm long; cartilaginous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex emarginate; muticous, or mucronate, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 0-3.5 mm long overall. Palea linear; 2-3.4 mm long; 1 -veined; without keels.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 2; 1.8-3.6 mm long. Stigmas 2; protogynous; pubescent.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; lanceolate, or oblong; 1.6-2.2 mm long. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia.
    Reference
    Aveneae. Veldkamp 1994.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, China South-Central, Jawa, Maluku, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand

    Anthoxanthum horsfieldii (Kunth ex Benn.) Reeder appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 1983 Clarke, C.B. [45553a], India K000032289 holotype
    Jan 1, 1961 Clemens, J. [29176], Malaysia K000290605 isotype
    Brass, L.J. [4412], Papua New Guinea K000290466 isotype
    Merrill, E.D. [4713], Philippines K000290469 isotype
    Steenis, C.G.G.J.van [9588], Sumatera K000290468 isotype
    Smitinand, T. [24775], Thailand Anthoxanthum clarkei K000290467 holotype

    First published in J. Arnold Arbor. 24: 325 (1950)

    Accepted by

    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0