1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Anthoxanthum L.
      1. Anthoxanthum japonicum (Maxim.) Hack. ex Matsum.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Japan (C. & N. Honshu).

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose; clumped loosely. Rhizomes short. Culms slender; 26-65 cm long; 1-1.2 mm diam.; 3-5 -noded. Culm-internodes distally glabrous. Lateral branches lacking. Leaf-sheaths longer than adjacent culm internode; glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2-6 mm long; truncate, or obtuse, or acute. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 12-20 cm long; 4-10 mm wide; aromatic. Leaf-blade surface smooth; pubescent; sparsely hairy; hairy adaxially.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; loose; 5-10 cm long; 1-3.5 cm wide. Primary panicle branches 2 -nate; 1-3 cm long. Panicle branches smooth. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or oblong; laterally compressed; compressed slightly; 5-7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes elongated below proximal fertile floret. Rhachilla elongation 0.7-1 mm long.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or oblong; laterally compressed; compressed slightly; 5-7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes elongated below proximal fertile floret. Rhachilla elongation 0.7-1 mm long.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 3-4 mm long; 0.66 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 5-7 mm long; 2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets dissimilar; barren; without significant palea; attached to and deciduous with the fertile. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; 5-7 mm long; chartaceous; without keels; 5 -veined; pilose; dentate; 2 -fid; obtuse; awned. Awn of lower sterile floret dorsal; arising 0.5 way up back of lemma; 1.5-2 mm long. Lemma of upper sterile floret oblong; 5-7 mm long; chartaceous; pilose; dentate; 2 -fid; obtuse; awned. Awn of upper sterile floret dorsal; arising 0.25 way up back of lemma; geniculate; 4-5 mm long. Fertile lemma elliptic, or ovate; 2.5-3 mm long; cartilaginous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex emarginate. Palea oblong; 1 -veined; without keels.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 2; 2-2.5 mm long. Stigmas 2; protogynous; pubescent.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Asia-temperate: eastern Asia.
    Reference
    Aveneae. Koyama 1994.

    Distribution

    Anthoxanthum japonicum (Maxim.) Hack. ex Matsum. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 11: 443 (1897)

    Accepted by

    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0