1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Arthraxon P.Beauv.
      1. Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Asia to E. Australia.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; mat forming. Culms rambling; slender; 7-60(-100) cm long; 0.3-1 mm diam.; rooting from lower nodes. Culm-internodes 1-6 cm long. Culm-nodes pubescent. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface, or pilose, or hispid; with tubercle-based hairs; outer margin glabrous, or hairy. Ligule a ciliolate membrane; 0.5-3 mm long. Leaf-blade base amplexicaul. Leaf-blades lanceolate, or ovate; 1-8 cm long; 3-25 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pilose; sparsely hairy; hairy on both sides. Leaf-blade margins tuberculate-ciliate; hairy all along, or at base. Leaf-blade apex acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 2-50; digitate; 1.5-5 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; glabrous on margins, or ciliate on margins. Rhachis hairs (0.5-)0.66-0.75 mm long. Rhachis internodes filiform to linear; 2-6 mm long. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels linear; 0.1-2 mm long; glabrous, or ciliate.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 3-8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus glabrous, or pubescent; base truncate; attached transversely. Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 3-8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus glabrous, or pubescent; base truncate; attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of spikelet; chartaceous; much thinner on margins; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Lower glume surface convex; spinose; rough on veins. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume lanceolate; chartaceous; 1-keeled; keeled above; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scaberulous. Upper glume apex acute, or obtuse.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; 0.66 length of spikelet; hyaline; 2 -veined; obtuse. Fertile lemma oblong; 2-6 mm long; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex acute; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn dorsal; arising 0.2 way up back of lemma; geniculate; 0-20 mm long overall; with a straight or slightly twisted column, or with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Anthers 2; 0.5-1 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; fusiform, or oblong; 3.5-5 mm long.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, Mongolia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: north-central. North America: north-central USA, northeast USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, and western South America.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. Fl China 2005.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Straggling, delicate annual; culms up to 80 cm long, much branched.
    Ligules
    Ligule 0.5 mm long; leaf lamina 2–6 cm × 4–12 mm, lanceolate to narrowly ovate, cordate and amplexicaul at the base, loosely pilose and often with bulbous-based hairs on the margins, acute at the apex.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 2–14 in fascicles borne on long exserted peduncles, 1.5–5 cm long, ± terete, greenish-yellow or purplish; internodes filiform, with silvery-white appressed hairs 1–2 mm long at the summit; pedicels absent.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet 3.2–4 mm long; inferior glume rounded on the back, narrowly ovate, ± scabrid, awnless; superior glume strongly convex on the back with broad hyaline margins, acute to mucronate at the apex; awn of superior lemma 7–10 mm long; anthers 0.6–0.9 mm long, dark red.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet absent. Sessile spikelet 3.2–4 mm long; inferior glume rounded on the back, narrowly ovate, ± scabrid, awnless; superior glume strongly convex on the back with broad hyaline margins, acute to mucronate at the apex; awn of superior lemma 7–10 mm long; anthers 0.6–0.9 mm long, dark red.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet absent.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annual; culms slender, 7–60(–100) cm. long, trailing.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 1–8 cm. long, 3–20 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of 2–30 fasciculate racemes, each 2–4 cm. long; internodes ciliate, often sparsely so, the hairs seldom over 0.5 mm. long (very rarely glabrous).
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 2.5–4.5 mm. long; lower glume chartaceous, strongly convex on the back, scaberulous to scabrid especially near the tip; upper glume acute to mucronate; awn 4–8 mm. long; 2 anthers 0.3–0.8 mm. long.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 2.5–4.5 mm. long; lower glume chartaceous, strongly convex on the back, scaberulous to scabrid especially near the tip; upper glume acute to mucronate; awn 4–8 mm. long; 2 anthers 0.3–0.8 mm. long.
    Pedicel
    Pedicel reduced to a subulate point 0.1–0.6 mm. long, glabrous or occasionally ciliate (rarely linear and up to 2 mm. long, very rarely bearing a spikelet).
    Figures
    Fig. 173.
    Habitat
    Shady glades and pathsides in wooded grassland and upland evergreen forest, extending onto old farmland and damp rocks; 650–2600 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K5 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 U3 tropical Africa, extending through India and Sri Lanka to Thailandintroduced to central America and the Caribbean
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Decumbent annual with tough wiry stems rooting at the lower nodes
    Ecology
    Shady clearings.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Manchuria, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Amur, Arkansas, Costa Rica, Delaware, District of Columbia, El Salvador, Florida, Georgia, Great Britain, Guatemala, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, Indiana, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Venezuela, Virginia, West Virginia

    Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 1998 Cheek, M. [9734], Cameroon K000339490
    Jun 1, 1998 Etuge, M. [3490], Cameroon K000339488
    May 1, 1998 Kamundi, D. [650], Cameroon K000339489
    Carr, C.E. [14643], Papua New Guinea K000290033 isotype
    Kerr, A.F.G. [2774], Thailand K000620295
    Kerr, A.F.G. [9421], Thailand K000620296
    Kerr, A.F.G. [16404], Thailand K000620297
    Sorensen, Th. [592], Thailand K000688843
    Hooker, J.D. [s.n.], Sikkim K000245900 isotype
    Stuart, C. [s.n.], New South Wales K000975036 holotype
    Laegaard, S. [21759], Thailand K000688844
    Laegaard, S. [21761], Thailand K000688845
    Laegaard, S. [21778], Thailand K000688846
    Hance, H.F. [1396], Guangdong K000974966 Unknown type material
    Hance, H.F. [1396], Guangdong K000974967 Unknown type material
    Hance, H.F. [1396], Fujian K000974968
    Maximowicz, C.J. [s.n.], Hokkaido K000974969 isotype
    Maximowicz, C.J. [s.n.], Hokkaido K000974970
    Maximowicz, C.J. [s.n.], Hokkaido K000974971
    Falconer, H. [s.n.], India K000975014
    Schrenck, A.G.von [s.n.], Kazakhstan K000974973
    Schrenck, A.G.von [s.n.], Kazakhstan K000974974
    s.coll. [s.n.], Japan K000974972
    Jun 1, 2004 Gosline, G. [277], Cameroon Arthraxon micans K000746241
    Aug 1, 1889 Ayres [47], Mauritius Arthraxon micans K000244581 Unknown type material
    van Beusekom, C.F. [3872], Thailand Arthraxon micans K000688854
    van Beusekom, C.F. [3594], Thailand Arthraxon micans K000688855
    Schimper [1532], Ethiopia Arthraxon micans K000280734
    Schimper [911], Ethiopia Arthraxon micans K000280735
    Bidgood, S. [5716], Tanzania Arthraxon micans K000468708
    Bidgood, S. [5636], Tanzania Arthraxon micans K000468788
    Wight, R. [1683], India Arthraxon micans K000246132 isotype
    Wight, R. [1683], India Arthraxon micans K000245911 isotype
    Wallich, N. [8833], Nepal Arthraxon micans K000245912 isosyntype
    Wallich, N. [8833], Nepal Arthraxon micans K000245913 syntype
    Wallich, N. [8833], Myanmar Arthraxon micans K000975007
    Heyne, B. [8833], India Arthraxon micans K000975008 Unknown type material
    Royle, J.F. [278], Bangladesh Arthraxon micans K000246131 isosyntype
    Rottler, J.P. [s.n.], Karnataka Arthraxon micans K000975009
    Ramsay, C.B. [s.n.], Indian Subcontinent Arthraxon micans K000975006

    First published in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 26: 214 (1912)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
    • Roshevitz, R.J. & al. (eds.) (1950). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 2: 1-315. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.
    • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
    • Robyns, W. (1929). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1: 1-229. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
    • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0