1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Arundo L.
      1. Arundo donax L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. & Central Asia to Temp. E. Asia.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes short (internodes less than 2cm long). Culms erect; reed-like; 200-600 cm long. Culm-internodes thin-walled. Culm-nodes glabrous. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades drooping; 20-80 cm long; 10-70 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth; glabrous. Leaf-blade apex attenuate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle contracted; oblong; 30-60 cm long. Primary panicle branches profusely divided. Panicle branches scaberulous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-5 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 8-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus evident; pilose; hairy on the surface; obtuse.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-5 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 8-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus evident; pilose; hairy on the surface; obtuse.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; reaching apex of florets; similar to fertile lemma in texture. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume surface glabrous. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 1.25 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume surface glabrous. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; 6-12 mm long; membranous; without keel; 5-9 -veined. Lemma surface villous; hairy below. Lemma hairs 5-8 mm long. Lemma apex acute, or acuminate; muticous, or mucronate. Palea 0.5-0.7 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels ciliolate.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2. Anthers 3; 2.5-3 mm long. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ovoid; 2 mm long. Embryo 1 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Europe: southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, northeast tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Arundineae. FTA.
    Diagnostic
    Callus hairs oblique.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cyprus, East Himalaya, Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Kazakhstan, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Sinai, Tadzhikistan, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Albania, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Christmas I., Colombia, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Desventurados Is., Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Easter Is., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Georgia, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Illinois, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Korea, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Namibia, Nauru, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sicilia, Society Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sumatera, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey-in-Europe, Utah, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Virginia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Yugoslavia

    Arundo donax L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 26, 1934 Wight, R. [1748], India K000032473 Unknown type material
    Oct 26, 1929 Koenig, J.G. [88], India K000032474 Unknown type material
    Kerr, A.F.G. [2750], Thailand K000621684
    Kerr, A.F.G. [4854], Thailand K000621685
    Kerr, A.F.G. [4854], Thailand K000621686
    Kerr, A.F.G. [4854], Thailand K000621687
    Kerr, A.F.G. [4659], Thailand K000621688
    Kerr, A.F.G. [4659], Thailand K000621689
    Riedel [s.n.], Brazil K001055224

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 81 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Hohla, M. (2014). Hystrix patula - neu für Österrei, sowie weitere Beiträge zur Flora von Obenösterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark und Vorarlberg Stapfia 101: 83-100.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Datta, B.K., Saha, R. Roy, M. & Majumder, K. (2008). Grasses of West Tripura district, Tripura, India Pleione 2: 98-105.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae Candollea 47: 113-179.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Hohla, M. (2014). Hystrix patula - neu für Österrei, sowie weitere Beiträge zur Flora von Obenösterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark und Vorarlberg Stapfia 101: 83-100.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Datta, B.K., Saha, R. Roy, M. & Majumder, K. (2008). Grasses of West Tripura district, Tripura, India Pleione 2: 98-105.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae Candollea 47: 113-179.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
    • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/