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  1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Avenella Bluff ex Drejer
      1. Avenella flexuosa (L.) Drejer

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe to Japan and Malesian Mountains, Macaronesia, NW. & Tropical Montane Africa, Greenland to Central & E. U.S.A., S. South America to Falkland Islands.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes absent, or elongated. Culms erect; 20-200 cm long; wiry; 1-3 -noded. Leaves mostly basal. Leaf-sheaths smooth, or scaberulous. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.5-3 mm long; obtuse. Leaf-blades filiform; involute; 5-20 cm long; 0.3-0.8 mm wide; stiff. Leaf-blade apex abruptly acute, or acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; effuse; 4-15 cm long; 3-20 cm wide. Panicle branches capillary; scabrous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform; 3-10 mm long; scabrous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong, or cuneate; laterally compressed; 4-6 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets. Rhachilla internodes definite; pilose. Floret callus pilose.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong, or cuneate; laterally compressed; 4-6 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets. Rhachilla internodes definite; pilose. Floret callus pilose.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; reaching apex of florets; similar to fertile lemma in texture; shiny. Lower glume ovate; 3-5 mm long; 0.8-0.9 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth, or asperulous. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 4-6 mm long; 1.1-1.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1-3 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth, or asperulous. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma oblong; 3.5-5.5 mm long; membranous; shiny; without keel; 4 -veined. Lemma apex erose; truncate, or obtuse; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn dorsal; arising 0.2 way up back of lemma; geniculate; 4-7 mm long overall; with twisted column. Palea keels scaberulous. Rhachilla extension 0.3-0.4 length of fertile floret; pilose.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3; 2-3 mm long. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 2-2.5 mm long. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Caucasus, western Asia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: New Zealand. North America: Subarctic, eastern Canada, north-central USA, northeast USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
    Reference
    Aveneae. CEH.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arkansas, Azores, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Borneo, Bulgaria, Burundi, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East European Russia, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, Føroyar, Georgia, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Hungary, Iceland, Illinois, Indiana, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kuril Is., Labrador, Louisiana, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Nepal, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Prince Edward I., Québec, Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Sicilia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Vermont, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Yugoslavia, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Alaska, Aleutian Is., Brazil South, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Colorado, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Hawaii, Idaho, Mexico Central, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Oregon, Rhode I., South Georgia, Tristan da Cunha, Washington, Wyoming, Yukon

    Accepted Infraspecifics

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Avenella flexuosa (L.) Drejer appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Bally, J. [3258], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333380
    Bally, J. [3261], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333416
    Bogdan, A. [3950], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333378
    Verdcourt, B. [2043], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333381
    Hedberg, O. [931], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333379
    Hedberg, O. [1840], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333382
    illegible [s.n.], Germany Deschampsia flexuosa K000808845
    Reverchon, E. [47], Spain Deschampsia flexuosa K000808838
    Mearns, E.A. [1664], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333383
    Braun, A. [s.n.], Germany Deschampsia flexuosa K000808852
    Fries [2919], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333377
    Fries [3122], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333415
    Lange, J. [53], Spain Deschampsia flexuosa K000808841
    Boreau, A. [s.n.], France Deschampsia flexuosa K000808842
    Boreau, A. [s.n.], France Deschampsia flexuosa K000808843
    Ahlberg, F. [s.n.], Norway Deschampsia flexuosa K000808846 epitype
    Hedberg [1986], Kenya Deschampsia flexuosa K000333376
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 403], United Kingdom Deschampsia flexuosa K000914527
    Westberg, G. [94], Latvia Deschampsia flexuosa K000808848
    Czetz, L. [s.n.] Deschampsia flexuosa K000808847
    Lejeune, A.L.S. [s.n.] Deschampsia flexuosa K000808850
    Serafino, E. [109], Corse Deschampsia flexuosa K000808840
    Melvill, J.C. [s.n.], Great Britain Deschampsia flexuosa K000808859
    s.coll. [s.n.], Great Britain Deschampsia flexuosa K000808851
    Swartz, O.P. [s.n.] Deschampsia flexuosa K000808849
    Durieu, M.M.C. [174], Spain Deschampsia flexuosa K000808839
    Uechtritz, M.F.S. von. [s.n.], Czech Republic Deschampsia flexuosa K000808844
    Melbill, J.C. [s.n.], Great Britain Deschampsia flexuosa K000808858

    Bibliography

    First published in Fl. Excurs. Hafn.: 32 (1838)

    Accepted by

    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.

    Not accepted by

    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Deschampsia flexuosa.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2005). A checklist of the native vascular flora of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas): New information on the species present, their ecology, status and distribution Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 132: 115-148.
    • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    • Hultén, E.O.G. (1960). Flora of the Aleutian Islands and westernmost Alaska Peninsula: with notes on the flora of Commander Islands, ed. 2: 1-376. Weinheim : J. Cramer ; New York : Hafner Pub. Co.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0