1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Brachypodium P.Beauv.
      1. Brachypodium flexum Nees

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; culms solitary, or mat forming. Culms decumbent; 30-100 cm long; wiry; rooting from lower nodes. Culm-internodes scaberulous. Culm-nodes pubescent. Leaf-sheaths scaberulous; glabrous on surface, or pilose. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1 mm long. Leaf-blades 5-17 cm long; 2-6 mm wide; flaccid. Leaf-blade surface scabrous; rough abaxially; pilose; sparsely hairy; hairy adaxially.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; drooping, or erect; bilateral; 4-15 cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 3-9 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis glabrous on surface; scabrous on margins. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; lax; 1.5 their length apart; 2 -rowed. Spikelets ascending; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong; 1.5 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 6-12 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 15-30 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 6-12 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 15-30 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; (3-)4-8 mm long; 0.9-1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; (3-)4-5 -veined. Lower glume apex acute, or acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 4-10 mm long; 0.5-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 7 -veined. Upper glume apex acute, or acuminate.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; (5-)7-11 mm long; without keel; 7 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous; glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose. Lemma apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical; 4-8 mm long overall. Palea keels ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 3 mm long. Ovary with a fleshy appendage below style insertion; pubescent on apex.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; hairy at apex; apex fleshy. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia.
    Reference
    Brachypodieae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Weak-stemmed perennial 30–90 cm. high.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Habit
    A very variable perennial.
    Culms
    Culms up to 100 cm. tall, 5-many-noded, usually branched below, rarely simple, straggling, ascending from a geniculate base, or often decumbent and rooting from the lower nodes, terete, wiry, rather slender, smooth, glabrous or sometimes hairy below the nodes; nodes finely pubescent.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf-sheaths shorter than the internodes, striate, tight at first, later slipping off the culm, with a row of spreading hairs along the margins, otherwise glabrous or rarely scattered pilose.
    Ligules
    Ligule c. 1 mm. long, truncate.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf-laminae 5-15 x 0.3-0.8 cm., linear, long tapering to a fine flexible point, dark-green to glaucous, somewhat rigid to almost flaccid, usually scattered pilose, sometimes glabrous, smooth on the upper, scaberulous on the lower surface.
    Inflorescences
    Raceme 4-15 cm. long, erect or more often pendulous, bearing 3-9 spikelets; rhachis very slender, frequently curved, compressed, glabrous, scabrous mainly along the margins.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels hardly more than 1.5 mm. long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.25-4.5 cm. long, 7-many-flowered, usually overlapping but sometimes remote, horizontally spreading to obliquely ascending, glabrous or thinly pubescent.
    Glume
    Glumes with the apex acute to acuminate, chartaceous, strongly nerved; inferior 3-6 mm. long, (3)4-5-nerved, narrowly triangular to lanceolate-subulate; superior 5-8.5 mm. long, 7-nerved, lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong.
    Lemma
    Lemmas 6-8 mm. long, 7-nerved, firmly membranous, lanceolate, tapering into the awn, inconspicuously scaberulous, rarely shortly pubescent; awn 3-7.5 mm. long, slender, straight.
    Palea
    Paleas 7-8 mm. long, with rigid cilia along the keels.
    Anthers
    Anthers c. 3 mm. long, linear.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Weak stemmed perennial, often forming dense mats.
    Culms
    Culms 30–100 cm. high, usually scaberulous, slender, wiry, geniculately ascending, pubescent at the nodes.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 5–17 cm. long and 2–6 mm. wide, flat, thin, sparsely pilose above, scabrid beneath; sheaths nearly always scabrid, glabrous or sometimes sparsely pilose.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 6–12 cm. long, usually bearing 5–8 spikelets.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.5–3 cm. long, narrowly lanceolate, mostly 6–12-flowered; glumes lanceolate, the lower (3–)4–8 mm. long, the upper 4–10 mm. long, acute or tapering to a fine point; lemmas narrowly lanceolate, (5–)7–11 mm. long, scaberulous, pubescent or weakly pilose, rarely glabrous, acute, tipped by an awn 4–8 mm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 24, p. 72.
    Habitat
    In shade of open or closed upland forest, bamboo thicket and ericaceous bushland; 2000–3000 m.
    Distribution
    Sudan Republic and Ethiopia to South Africa and Madagascar K2 K3 K4 K5 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 U1 U2 U3

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Yemen

    Native to:

    Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gulf of Guinea Is., Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Brachypodium flexum Nees appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 1998 Cable, S. [3087], Cameroon K000339497
    Feb 19, 1974 Gilbert, M.G. [3300], Ethiopia K001268419
    Feb 17, 1974 Gilbert, M.G. [3235], Ethiopia K001268418
    Nov 19, 1972 Friis, I. [1237], Ethiopia K001268416
    Nov 4, 1971 Thullin, M. [1606], Ethiopia K001268422
    Feb 11, 1971 Edwards, S. [54], Ethiopia K001268423
    Dec 31, 1965 de Wilde, W. [9489], Ethiopia K001268421
    Schimper [674], Ethiopia K000367337 isotype
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000367327
    Buchanan [61], South Africa K000367328
    Buchanan [104], South Africa K000367329
    Buchanan [198], South Africa K000367330
    Buchanan [233], South Africa K000367333
    Buchanan [233], South Africa K000367332
    Buchanan [79], South Africa K000367334
    Wolley-Dod, A.H. [2385], South Africa K000367331

    First published in Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill.: 456 (1841)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Fl. Afr. Austr. 1: 456 (1841).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 15 (1965).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 20 (1960).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 14 (1958).
    • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 32 (1958).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 8 (1947).
    • Nees, Fl. Afr. Austr. 1: 456 (1841).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0