1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Brachypodium P.Beauv.
      1. Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P.Beauv.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia to Eritrea and Eurasia.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 30-90 cm long; wiry; 4-5 -noded. Culm-internodes smooth. Culm-nodes pubescent. Leaf-sheaths smooth; pilose. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-6 mm long. Leaf-blades 15-35 cm long; 4-12 mm wide; flaccid. Leaf-blade surface scabrous; pilose.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; drooping, or erect; bilateral; 6-20 cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 4-14 fertile spikelets on each. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; lax; 2 -rowed. Spikelets ascending; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels linear, or oblong; 0.5-2 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 8-16 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate, or oblong; laterally compressed; 20-40 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 8-16 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate, or oblong; laterally compressed; 20-40 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 6-8 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 5-7 -veined. Lower glume surface pubescent. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate, or oblong; 8-11 mm long; 0.9-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex acuminate.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma oblong; 7-11 mm long; without keel; 7 -veined. Lemma surface pubescent. Lemma apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical; 8-12 mm long overall. Palea oblong; 1 length of lemma. Palea keels ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 3.5-4 mm long. Ovary with a fleshy appendage below style insertion; pubescent on apex.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; hairy at apex; apex fleshy. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, and northeast tropical. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: New Zealand. South America: southern South America.
    Reference
    Brachypodieae. CEH.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Altay, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Madeira, Maluku, Manchuria, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, New Guinea, North Caucasus, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qinghai, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Michigan, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Ontario, Oregon, Uruguay, Virginia

    Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 19, 1934 Wight, R. [1796], India K000913797
    Apr 19, 1934 Wight, R. [1796] K000913798
    Apr 18, 1934 s.coll. [924], India K000913796
    Strachey, R. [s.n.], Uttaranchal K000913815
    Duthie, J.F. [5121], Uttaranchal K000913804
    Duthie, J.F. [6227], Uttaranchal K000913805
    Duthie, J.F. [12626], Indian Subcontinent K000913809
    Henry, A. [11255], Yunnan K000913819 isotype
    Merrill, E.D. [4536], Philippines K000290412 syntype
    Merrill, E.D. [4710], Philippines K000290413 syntype
    Merrill, E.D. [4830], Philippines K000290414 syntype
    Merrill, E.D. [4698], Philippines K000290415 Unknown type material
    Wallich, N. [3800], Nepal K000913807
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 176], United Kingdom K000914548
    Harriss, S.A. [16828], Pakistan K000913806
    Jacquemont, V.V. [1215], Indian Subcontinent K000913810
    Jacquemont, V.V. [705], Indian Subcontinent K000913814
    Clarke, C.B. [43940], Meghalaya K000913799
    Clarke, C.B. [43846], Meghalaya K000913800
    Clarke, C.B. [41774], Nagaland K000913801
    Clarke, C.B. [41877], Nagaland K000913802
    Clarke, C.B. [22211], Himachal Pradesh K000913803
    Clarke, C.B. [28891], Indian Subcontinent K000913811
    Dr. King's Collector [264], Nepal K000913817
    Royle, J.F. [139], India K000913808 Unknown type material
    Schneider, C.K. [2343], Yunnan K000913818 isotype
    Madden, E. [s.n.] K000913813
    Madden, E. [524], Uttaranchal K000913816
    s.coll. [11], Indian Subcontinent K000913812

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 101, 155 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Meyer, F.K. (2011). Beiträge zur Flora von Albanien Haussknechtia, Beih. 15: 1-220.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
    • Roshevitz, R.J. & al. (eds.) (1950). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 2: 1-315. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.
    • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Fedtschenko, B.A. & al. (1932). Flora Turkmenii 1: 1-340. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0