1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus alopecuroides (L.) Thunb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is China to Temp. E. Asia and W. & Central Malesia, NW. & E. Australia.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rootstock evident. Basal innovations intravaginal. Culms erect; 60-100 cm long. Culm-internodes smooth, or scaberulous. Culm-nodes glabrous. Leaves mostly basal. Leaf-sheaths keeled; glabrous on surface. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 0.5-0.75 mm long. Leaf-blades erect, or drooping; flat, or conduplicate, or involute; 10-45 cm long; 3-6 mm wide. Leaf-blade apex attenuate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Peduncle hirsute above. Panicle spiciform; linear; 7-20 cm long; 1-1.5 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis angular; villous; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1-2 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; 15-30 mm long; base bluntly stipitate; base 1-4 mm long; base pubescent. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; with an outer whorl of thinner bristles; inner bristles longer than outer; 15-30 mm long; terete; flexible; glabrous, or ciliate.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 6-8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 6-8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume orbicular; 1-1.25 mm long; 0.15 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 0 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume oblong; 0.33-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5-7 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins obscure. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; chartaceous; 7 -veined; obtuse, or acute. Fertile lemma lanceolate; 6-8 mm long; chartaceous; without keel; 5-7 -veined. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex acute. Palea chartaceous.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 3.75-4 mm long; anther tip apiculate. Styles free to the base, or connate below.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; 2.5-3 mm long. Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Asia-temperate: Caucasus, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, and Malesia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand.
    Reference
    Paniceae. Fl NSW 1993.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Hainan, Japan, Jawa, Korea, Malaya, Manchuria, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Philippines, Queensland, Taiwan, Tibet, Vietnam, Western Australia

    Introduced into:

    Arkansas, Austria, Bulgaria, Colorado, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Illinois, India, Italy, Maryland, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Pennsylvania, Tasmania, Transcaucasus, Victoria, West Himalaya

    Cenchrus alopecuroides (L.) Thunb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 17, 1934 Tsang, W.T. [s.n.], Guangdong Pennisetum alopecuroides K001056152
    Brown, R. [6139], Australia Pennisetum alopecuroides K000215210 holotype
    Bushell, S.W. [s.n.], China Pennisetum alopecuroides K001056154
    Sampson, G.T. [251], China Pennisetum alopecuroides K001056153
    Home, J.E. [s.n.], China Pennisetum alopecuroides K001056155
    Vachell, G.H. [48], China Pennisetum alopecuroides K001056156

    First published in Prodr. Pl. Cap.: 24 (1794)

    Not accepted by

    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Pennisetum alopecuroides.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2015). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 5 Willdenowia 45: 449-464.
    • Veldkamp, J.F. (2014). A revision of Cenchrus incl. Pennisetum (Gramineae) in Malesia with some general nomenclatural notes Blumea 59: 59-75.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Lekhak, M.M. & Yadav, S.R. (2012). Herbacious vegetation of threatened high altitude lateritic plateau ecosystems of Western Ghats, southwestern Maharashtra, India Rheedea 22: 39-61.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0