1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus ciliaris L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Sicilia, S. Greece, Africa, Arabian Peninsula to Indian Subcontinent.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1000 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennial, often forming mats or tussocks; culms 10–150 cm., ascending, wiry or sometimes almost woody.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 3–25 cm. long, 2–13 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle cylindrical to ovoid, 2–14 cm. long, 10–26 mm. wide, grey, purple or straw-coloured, the rhachis angular and puberulous; involucre elongate, 6–16 mm. long; inner bristles much exceeding the spikelets, one of them longer and stouter than the rest, at least the longest somewhat flattened at the base, connate only at the base to form a disc 0.5–1.5 mm. in diameter (or sometimes connate for up to 0.5 mm. above the disc’s rim), sparsely or densely ciliate below, grooved on the face or not, filiform above, flexuous, often wavy, antrorsely scaberulous; outer bristles filiform.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1–4 per burr, 2–5.5 mm. long, acutely lanceolate; glumes distinct, acute, the lower from 1/4–1/2, the upper from 1/2 to as long as the spikelet.
    Habitat
    A common grass on a wide variety of soil types in deciduous bushland and wooded grassland; 0–2000 m.
    Distribution
    throughout Africa, extending through Arabia and the Middle East to Indiawidely introduced elsewhere in the Old World. K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Perennial, often forming mats or tussocks.
    Culms
    Culms 10–150 cm. high, ascending, wiry or sometimes almost woody.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 2–14 cm. long, cylindrical to ovoid, grey, purple or straw-coloured; involucre 6–16 mm. long, connate only at the base to form a disk 0.5–1.5 mm. in diam.; inner bristles flexuous, often wavy, sparsely to densely ciliate below, filiform above, one of them longer and stouter than the rest, this at least somewhat flattened towards the base; outer bristles filiform.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1–4 per bur, 2–5.5 mm. long, acutely lanceolate.
    Glume
    Glumes distinct, acute, the inferior from 1/4–1/2, the superior from 1/2 to as long as spikelet.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma chartaceous.
    Superior
    Superior lemma chartaceous.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Perennial, culms ascending, up to about 1 in. high
    Ecology
    Indigenous in the drier areas, but probably introduced in the south where it occurs on rubbish tips, roadsides, etc.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes short. Butt sheaths distinctly ribbed; sparsely hairy, or pubescent, or pilose. Basal innovations extravaginal. Culms geniculately ascending; 10-50 cm long; 1-4 mm diam.; wiry. Lateral branches sparse. Leaves basal and cauline. Leaf-sheaths loose; open for most of their length; with flat margins; 5-8.5 cm long; mostly shorter than adjacent culm internode; keeled; striately veined; scaberulous; glabrous on surface, or pilose; outer margin glabrous, or hairy. Leaf-sheath oral hairs scanty, or ciliate. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 0.2-2 mm long. Collar glabrous. Leaf-blades 3-25 cm long; 4-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous; prominent beneath. Leaf-blade venation distinct. Leaf-blade surface ribbed; scaberulous; glabrous, or pilose; sparsely hairy; hairy on both sides (or glabrous); with tubercle-based hairs (at times). Leaf-blade margins unthickened; eglandular; glabrous, or ciliate. Leaf-blade apex acuminate; hardened.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear to oblong; 2-14 cm long; 1-2.6 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis angular; puberulous; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1-4 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; connate into a disc below (0.5-1mm diam); with 0.2-0.3(-0.5) mm connate; 6-12 mm long; base obconical. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; with an outer whorl of thinner bristles; inner bristles longer than outer; with one conspicuously longer bristle; 8-16 mm long; flattened (at least base of longest bristle); without grooves, or grooved on the face; flexible (often wavy); antrorsely scaberulous; ciliate.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; acute; 2-5.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; acute; 2-5.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes similar; subequal in width; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.2-0.5 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 0.4-1 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 1 length of fertile lemma; membranous; 5 -veined; acute; mucronate. Fertile lemma ovate; dorsally compressed; lanceolate in profile; 2-5.5 mm long; chartaceous; pallid; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma margins covering most of palea. Lemma apex acute; mucronate. Palea ovate; 1 length of lemma; chartaceous; 2 -veined. Palea apex acute.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy. Anthers 3; 1.5 mm long. Stigmas 2; protogynous; terminally exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis obovoid; dorsally compressed; 1-1.3 mm long; dark brown; glabrous; truncate, or obtuse; apex unappendaged.
    Distribution
    Europe: southeastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Paniceae. VJN 1993.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes short. Culms geniculately ascending; 40-60 cm long; swollen at the base. Culm-internodes smooth; distally glabrous. Leaf-sheaths keeled; pilose. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 0.5 mm long. Leaf-blades 25-35 cm long; 4-5 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; hirsute; sparsely hairy. Leaf-blade margins smooth, or scaberulous. Leaf-blade apex acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; 3-8 cm long; 0.7-1.2 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis angular; scaberulous; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 3 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; connate into a disc below; with 1 mm connate; 6-7 mm long. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; with an outer whorl of thinner bristles; inner bristles longer than outer; with longest bristle scarcely emergent, or with one conspicuously longer bristle; 5-8 mm long; flattened; rigid; antrorsely scaberulous; glabrous; spinose.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 4.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 4.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume ovate; 1.8-2 mm long; 0.4-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume surface puberulous.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; puberulous; hairy above; acuminate. Fertile lemma ovate; 4.5 mm long; coriaceous; much thinner on margins; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex acuminate; pubescent. Palea coriaceous.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 2.5 mm long; yellow.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ovoid; dorsally compressed; 2.5 mm long.
    Distribution
    Africa: western Indian ocean.
    Reference
    Paniceae. Camus 2007.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Gulf States, India, Iran, Iraq, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Aruba, Aruba, Bahamas, Bolivia, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, California, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Guyana, Hawaii, Honduras, Jawa, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Malaya, Marquesas, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Missouri, Netherlands Antilles, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Australia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia

    Common Names

    English
    African foxtail, Blue buffalo grass, Buffalo grass, Foxtail buffalo grass, Pearl millet

    Cenchrus ciliaris L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 27, 2008 Crawford, F. [182], Namibia K000450378
    Mar 21, 1932 Wight, R. [3238], India K000245390 Unknown type material
    Mar 21, 1932 s.coll. [s.n.], India K001056134
    Schimper [153], Egypt K000244667
    Schimper [153], Egypt K000244668
    Schimper [153], Egypt K000244670
    Queiroz, L.P. [5561], Brazil K001106074
    Carvalho, A.M. [3967], Brazil K001106073
    França, F. [5128], Brazil K001106066
    Filgueiras, T.S. [832], Brazil K001106070
    Filgueiras, T.S. [827], Brazil K001106071
    Kotschy [190], Sudan K000281252 isotype
    Kotschy [190], Sudan K000281251 isotype
    Kotschy [52], Ethiopia K000281253
    Kotschy [52], Ethiopia K000281254
    Kotschy [170] K000244671
    Floyer, E.S. [81] K000244669
    Carneiro-Torres, D.S. [96], Brazil K001106075
    Nascimento, M.S.B. [1401], Brazil K001106068
    Dombrowski, L.T. [7387], Brazil K001106069
    Gussone, G. [s.n.] K001056141
    Glaziou, A. [20098], Brazil K001106072

    First published in Mant. Pl. 2: 302 (1771)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Veldkamp, J.F. (2014). A revision of Cenchrus incl. Pennisetum (Gramineae) in Malesia with some general nomenclatural notes Blumea 59: 59-75.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. & Pensiero, J.F. (2014). Gramineae VI Flora del Paraguay 45: 1-392. Editions des Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la ville de Genève.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Gutiérrez, H.F. & Morrone, O. (2012). Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 47: 263-269.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae Candollea 47: 113-179.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Al-Rawi, A. (1987). Flora of Kuwait 2: 1-455. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 394
    • De Miré & Gillet in J. Agric. Trop. 3: 729.
    • F.T.A. 9: 1072
    • Mant. Alt. 302 (1771)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
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    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/