1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus geniculatus Thunb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Nigeria to Eritrea and S. Africa, SW. Arabian Peninsula.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes elongated. Butt sheaths glabrous. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 10-150 cm long. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades flat, or convolute; 3-40 cm long; 2-8 mm wide. Leaf-blade apex attenuate; filiform.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Peduncle glabrous. Panicle spiciform; linear, or oblong; 2-15 cm long. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with lateral stumps on axis. Panicle axis with rounded ribs; scaberulous; glabrous; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; oblong; 5-14 mm long; base truncate. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; with longest bristle scarcely emergent; 5-14 mm long; terete; flexible; glabrous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate, or ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 2.5-5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate, or ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 2.5-5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume oblong, or ovate; 0.2-0.25 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 0-1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein absent, or distinct. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex emarginate, or obtuse, or acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic, or ovate; (0.25-)0.33-0.66(-0.75) length of spikelet; membranous; 1-3 -veined; cuspidate, or acuminate; mucronate. Awn of lower sterile floret 0.5-1.5 mm long. Fertile lemma ovate; 2.5-5 mm long; membranous; without keel; 5-7 -veined. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex acuminate; muticous, or mucronate. Palea 1 length of lemma; membranous.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 1.5-2.5 mm long; anther tip smooth, or penicillate. Styles connate below; 0.2 of their length connate.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; dorsally compressed; 1.7 mm long.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: Arabia. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Loosely tufted rhizomatous perennial; culms 10–150 cm. high, erect or geniculate.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, 3–40 cm. long, 2–8 mm. wide, flat or convolute, tapering to a filiform tip; sheaths glabrous except for margins and throat.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle linear to narrowly oblong, 2–15 cm. long, dense; rhachis cylindrical, with rounded ribs and distinct peduncle-stumps, scaberulous; involucre enclosing 1 sessile spikelet, stipeless and truncate at the base; bristles fine, glabrous, the longest 5–14 mm.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 2.5–5 mm. long, acuminate; lower glume suppressed or up to 1 mm. long; upper glume up to 1/4 the length of the spikelet, acute to emarginate; lower lemma barren, (1/4–)1/3–2/3(–3/4) the length of the spikelet, abruptly acuminate to cuspidate, usually with a mucro 0.5–1.5 mm. long; upper lemma as long as the spikelet, acuminate or with a mucro up to 1 mm. long; anther-tips smooth, with a few tiny hairs, or distinctly penicillate.
    Habitat
    Upland pasture, particularly on damp soils, extending to roadsides and old cultivation; 1500–3500 m.
    Distribution
    Zaire and Ethiopia to South Africa K2 K3 K4 K5 T2 T3 T4 T7 U1 U2 U3
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Loosely tufted rhizomatous perennial.
    Culms
    Culms 10–150 cm. high, erect or geniculate, glabrous or pubescent below panicle.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae 2–8 mm. wide, flat or convolute.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 2–15 cm. long, linear to narrowly oblong; rhachis cylindrical with rounded ribs and distinct peduncle stumps, scaberulous; involucre enclosing 1 sessile spikelet, the base truncate; bristles fine, glabrous, the longest 5–14 mm.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2.5–5 mm. long.
    Glume
    Inferior glume suppressed or up to 1 mm. long, the superior up to 1/4 length of spikelet, acute to emarginate.
    Lemma
    Inferior lemma (1/4)1/3–2/3(3/4) length of spikelet, abruptly acuminate to cuspidate, usually with a mucro 0.5–1.5 mm. long. Superior lemma thinly coriaceous, acuminate or with a mucro up to 1 mm. long.
    Inferior
    Inferior lemma (1/4)1/3–2/3(3/4) length of spikelet, abruptly acuminate to cuspidate, usually with a mucro 0.5–1.5 mm. long.
    Superior
    Superior lemma thinly coriaceous, acuminate or with a mucro up to 1 mm. long.
    Anthers
    Anther tips smooth to distinctly penicillate.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Perennial with slender culms 30–90 cm. high
    Ecology
    Damp places.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Canary Is., Sri Lanka

    Cenchrus geniculatus Thunb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Galpin, E.E. [2368], South Africa Pennisetum thunbergii K000281272 syntype
    Schimper [11], Ethiopia Pennisetum thunbergii K000215207 isotype
    Schimper [11], Ethiopia Pennisetum thunbergii K000215208 isotype
    Schimper [11], Ethiopia Pennisetum thunbergii K000215209 isotype
    Bidgood, S. [5189], Tanzania Pennisetum thunbergii K000190417
    Bidgood, S. [5413], Tanzania Pennisetum thunbergii K000190643
    Snowden, J.D. [1181], Uganda Pennisetum thunbergii K000281217 holotype
    Snowden, J.D. [1181], Uganda Pennisetum thunbergii K000281219 holotype
    Snowden, J.D. [1181], Uganda Pennisetum thunbergii K000281222 holotype
    MacOwan [1661], South Africa Pennisetum thunbergii K000281273 Unknown type material
    Frils, I. [1055], Ethiopia Pennisetum thunbergii K000281153
    Schweinfurth, G.A. [1471], Yemen Pennisetum thunbergii K001056157 Unknown type material

    First published in Prodr. Pl. Cap.: 24 (1794)

    Not accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne. [Cited as Pennisetum thunbergii.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0