1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus spinifex Cav.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Central & S. U.S.A. to Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 5-80 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 0.5-1.5 mm long. Leaf-blades 2-18 cm long; 2-6 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins scaberulous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; 2-8.5 cm long; 0.8-2 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis angular; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 2-4 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; connate into a cup below (cleft on 2 sides); with 2-7 mm connate; ovate, or globose; 5.5-10.2 mm long; base obconical; base glabrous, or pubescent. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; emerging irregularly from body of a burr; 8-40 in principal whorl; with longest bristle scarcely emergent; 2-5 mm long; flattened; rigid; retrorsely scaberulous; pubescent; spinose.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 3.5-5.8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 3.5-5.8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 1-1.3 mm long; 0.33-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume ovate; 2.8-5 mm long; 0.75-0.9 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5-7 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5-7 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; 3.4-5.8 mm long; coriaceous; much thinner on margins; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex acute. Palea coriaceous.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 0.5-2 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ovoid; dorsally compressed; 1.3-3 mm long.
    Distribution
    Europe: southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: western Asia and China. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia. North America: northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FZ.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1000 m.; Andes, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Annual.
    Culms
    Culms 5–80 cm. high, erect or ascending.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 2–8.5 cm. long; involucre 5.5–10 mm. long, connate for 1/3–2/3 its length to form a cup cleft on 2 sides; inner spines flattened, ± pubescent, retrorsely barbellate, pungent; outer spines triangular, arising irregularly from the surface of the bur.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2–4 per bur, 3.5–6 mm. long.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma thinly coriaceous.
    Superior
    Superior lemma thinly coriaceous.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Azores

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil South, California, Cayman Is., Chile North, Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Cuba, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Georgia, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Jamaica, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maryland, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Austria, Azores, Bangladesh, Cape Provinces, Corse, France, Free State, Greece, Italy, KwaZulu-Natal, Libya, Maine, Manchuria, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Palestine, Spain, Ukraine, Vermont, Yugoslavia

    Cenchrus spinifex Cav. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mendoza Cenchrus incertus K000643114
    Barclay [s.n.], Mexico Cenchrus incertus K000643120
    Barclay [s.n.], Mexico Cenchrus incertus K000643121
    Irwin, H.S. [7592], Brazil Cenchrus incertus K001075842
    Smith, L.B. [14107], Brazil Cenchrus incertus K001075841
    Hitchcock, A.S. [22349], Peru Cenchrus incertus K000643115 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [s.n.], USA Cenchrus incertus K001056120 Unknown type material
    Hatschbach, G.G. [61884], Brazil Cenchrus incertus K001075840

    First published in Icon. 5: 38 (1799)

    Accepted by

    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Nobis, M. & al. (2017). Contribution to the flora of Asian and European countries: new national and regional vascular plant records, 6 Botany Letters 164: 23-45.
    • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542. New York Botanical Garden.
    • Vladimirov, V., Aybeke, N. & Kit Tan (eds.) (2017). New floristic records in the Balkans: 32 Phytologia Balcanica 23: 119-146.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Gutiérrez, H.F. & Morrone, O. (2012). Novedades nomenclaturales en Cenchrus s.l. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 47: 263-269.
    • Verloove, F. & Sánchez Gullón, E. (2012). A taxonomic recision of non-native Cenchrus s.str. (Panicae, Poaceae) in the Mediterranean area Willdenowia 42: 67-75.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.

    Not accepted by

    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Cenchrus echinatus.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Nobis, M. & al. (2017). Contribution to the flora of Asian and European countries: new national and regional vascular plant records, 6 Botany Letters 164: 23-45.
    • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542. New York Botanical Garden.
    • Vladimirov, V., Aybeke, N. & Kit Tan (eds.) (2017). New floristic records in the Balkans: 32 Phytologia Balcanica 23: 119-146.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Verloove, F. & Sánchez Gullón, E. (2012). A taxonomic recision of non-native Cenchrus s.str. (Panicae, Poaceae) in the Mediterranean area Willdenowia 42: 67-75.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • USDA, NRCS (2005- continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0