1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Chloris Sw.
      1. Chloris virgata Sw.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical America.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; caespitose. Basal innovations subterete, or flabellate. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 50-100 cm long; without nodal roots, or rooting from lower nodes. Leaf-sheaths keeled. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades 10-30 cm long; 2-6 mm wide. Leaf-blade apex attenuate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 4-12; digitate; spreading; unilateral; 2-10 cm long. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 2.5-4.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus bearded; obtuse.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 2.5-4.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus bearded; obtuse.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; gaping. Lower glume lanceolate; 1.5-2.5 mm long; 0.5-0.6 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 2.5-4.5 mm long; 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex setaceously attenuate.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma obovate; laterally compressed; elliptic in profile; 2.5-4 mm long; cartilaginous; pallid, or dark brown; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein pubescent. Lemma lateral veins close to margins. Lemma surface with conspicuous apical hairs. Lemma margins pubescent. Lemma hairs 1.5-4 mm long. Lemma apex obtuse; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; 5-15 mm long overall. Apical sterile florets 2 in number; barren; in a clump; oblong; 2-2.5 mm long. Apical sterile lemmas glabrous; awned (one of them); 1 -awned. Apical sterile lemma awns subapical; 5-12 mm long; 1 per spikelet in number.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy. Anthers 3. Stigmas 2.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; trigonous. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, Mongolia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Cynodonteae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Annual up to 60 cm. high.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Robust annual up to 90 cm tall, erect or geniculately ascending, sometimes rooting from the lower nodes; lower sheaths strongly keeled and often flabellate; leaf laminas (2)10–24 cm × 2–6 mm, flat or folded, tapering to a fine point.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of 4–12 digitate racemes 4.5–10 cm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets (2)3-flowered, 2-awned; inferior glume 2–2.5 mm long; superior glume 3.2–3.6 mm long; floret callus rounded; fertile lemma 2.8–3.2 mm long, obliquely obovate and somewhat gibbous in profile, pallid or dark, ciliate on the margins, keel and flanks and with a subapical crown of hairs 1.5–4 mm long on each side, the awn 8–12 mm long; 2nd lemma oblong, 2–2.5 mm long, glabrous, with an awn 6–9 mm long; 3rd lemma (when present) an awnless clavate scale 0.5–1.2 mm long.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annual; culms up to 1 m. high, erect or geniculately ascending, occasionally rooting at the lower nodes.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat, 10–30 cm. long, 2–6 mm. wide, tapering at the apex; basal sheaths strongly keeled and often flabellate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of 4–12 digitate, spreading, feathery spikes 2–10 cm. long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets (2–)3-flowered, 2-awned; lower glume 1.5–2.5 mm. long; upper glume 2.5–4.5 mm. long, including the short awn-point if present; lowest lemma obliquely obovate in side view, 2.5–4 mm. long, pallid or dark, ciliate along the margins, keel and flanks, with a crown of hairs 1.5–4 mm. long at the apex, the awn 5–15 mm. long; callus rounded, pilose; 2nd lemma slightly projecting from the side of the lowest lemma, oblong, 2–2.5 mm. long, glabrous, with an awn 5–12 mm. long; 3rd lemma an awnless clavate scale 0.5–1.2 mm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 97, p. 344.
    Habitat
    Scattered tree grassland, bushland and disturbed habitats on a variety of soils; 10–2000 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 widely distributed throughout the tropics

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, California, Chile Central, Chile North, Colombia, Colorado, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Ascension, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Czechoslovakia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gilbert Is., Gulf States, Hawaii, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Mali, Manchuria, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Primorye, Qinghai, Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Society Is., Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Victoria, Vietnam, Western Australia, Xinjiang, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Blue grass, Feather finger grass, Feather top chloris, Feathertop grass, Hay grass, Old-land's grass

    Chloris virgata Sw. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 27, 2008 Crawford, F. [70], Namibia K000450390
    Sep 17, 1968 Schimper, W.P. [802], Saudi Arabia K000885799 Unknown type material
    Sep 17, 1968 Schimper, W.P. [802], Saudi Arabia K000885800
    Jan 24, 1966 Domin, D.K. [s.n.], Queensland K000885790 Unknown type material
    Hinton, G.B. [6030], Guerrero K000465937
    Hinton, G.B. [1646], México State K000465938
    Hinton, G.B. [1760], México State K000465939
    Hinton, G.B. [4765], México State K000465940
    Hinton, G.B. [9279], Guerrero K000465941
    Schimper [486] K000257118 Unknown type material
    Spruce, R. [6439], Ecuador K000201672
    Spruce, R. [6439], Ecuador K000201673
    Wright, C. [762], USA K000885770
    Duthie, J. F. [10614], India K000245178
    Duthie, J. F. [9922], India K000245179 Unknown type material
    Drummond, T. [395], Texas K000885768
    Drummond, T. [395], Texas K000885769
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000885792
    s.coll. [87], India K000885793
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000885794
    s.coll. [87], India K000885795
    Glaziou [12275], Brazil K001102109

    First published in Fl. Ind. Occid. 1: 203 (1797)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Rodrigues Maciel, J. & al. (2013). O gênero Chloris (Poaceae) em Pernambuco, Brasil Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 64: 169-177.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Starchenko, V.M. & Darman, G.F. (2011). Floristic records in the Amur region Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 96: 99-103.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 14: 127.
    • Chev. Bot. 746
    • Fl. Ind. Occ. 1: 203 (1797)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Starchenko, V.M. & Darman, G.F. (2011). Floristic records in the Amur region Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 96: 99-103.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/