1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Chrysopogon Trin.
      1. Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Indian Ocean, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Pacific.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1000 m.; Andes, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; mat forming. Stolons present. Basal innovations flabellate. Culms erect; 20-60 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 1-9 cm long; 2-5 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous. Leaf-blade apex obtuse, or abruptly acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme. Panicle open; ovate; 4-9 cm long. Panicle branches stiff; glabrous. Racemes bearing a triad of spikelets; 1 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis obsolete. Spikelets in threes. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 2 in the cluster. Pedicels linear; 0.75 length of fertile spikelet; glabrous.
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 4-6 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; acute, or setaceously attenuate; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes; muticous. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 3.5-4 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; 3-5 mm long; pubescent; base pungent.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 4-6 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; acute, or setaceously attenuate; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes; muticous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 3.5-4 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; 3-5 mm long; pubescent; base pungent.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 3-4 mm long; 1 length of spikelet; cartilaginous; without keels. Upper glume lanceolate; 1-keeled. Upper glume apex setaceously attenuate; muticous.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; hyaline; 2 -veined. Fertile lemma oblong; hyaline; without keel. Lemma apex entire; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical; straight; 4-6 mm long overall. Palea absent or minute.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. South America: Mesoamericana.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. WDC.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Note
    The very long (3–4 mm.) needle-like callus is a menace, readily penetrating the mouths of cattle and the paws of dogs.
    Habit
    A sward-forming perennial, sometimes used for lawns.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Fiji, Hainan, India, Japan, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Niue, Ogasawara-shoto, Philippines, Queensland, Rodrigues, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Equatorial Guinea, Florida, Gabon, Ghana, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, Ivory Coast, Mali, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Panamá, Sierra Leone, St.Helena, Togo

    Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 1997 Robinson, C.B. [45], Maluku K000290063 epitype
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3787], Thailand K000620482
    Kerr, A.F.G. [842], Thailand K000620483
    Sorensen, Th. [3700], Thailand K000688648
    den Hoed, G. [249], Thailand K000688644
    Floto, F. [7311], Thailand K000688649
    Niyomdham [1630], Thailand K000688650
    Heckman, C.W. [107], Thailand K000688645
    Heckman, C.W. [108], Thailand K000688646
    Murata, G. [T-16441], Thailand K000688647
    Samith, E. [932], Thailand K000688643
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8780] K001131633
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8780] K001131634
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8780] K001131635

    First published in Fund. Agrost.: 188 (1820)

    Accepted by

    • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
    • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 13: 860.
    • Fund. Agrost. 188 (1820)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Peekel, P.G. (1984). Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for Naturalists: 1-638. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
    • Masamune, G. (1942). Enumeratio phanerogamarum Bornearum: 1-739. Taihoku, Formosa.
    • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
    • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0