1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Chrysopogon Trin.
      1. Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Indo-China to Malesia.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2000 m.; Andes, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Perennial up to 200 cm high or more; culms erect, the nodes all concealed within the leaf sheaths; ligule a scarious rim; leaf laminas up to 90 cm × 4–20 mm, linear.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle up to 30 cm long or more, oblong, contracted; main axis smooth and glabrous; whorls 6–10 each with up to 20 racemes; racemes very slender; rhachis internodes as long as or slightly longer than the spikelets, glabrous; pedicels shorter than the sessile spikelets, glabrous.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet linear-lanceolate, variable in colour (yellowish, olive, violet-brown, purplish); callus up to 1 mm long, obtuse, glabrous; inferior glume muricate on the back; superior glume spinulose on the keel; inferior lemma as long as the glumes, acute, retrorsely ciliate; superior floret bisexual, the lemma up to 3 mm long, narrow, oblong-lanceolate, mucronate, glabrous; anthers 2–3 mm long. Pedicelled spikelet sparingly aculeolate or almost smooth, male; inferior lemma as for the sessile spikelet; superior lemma acute, entire; anthers c. 2.5 mm long.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet linear-lanceolate, variable in colour (yellowish, olive, violet-brown, purplish); callus up to 1 mm long, obtuse, glabrous; inferior glume muricate on the back; superior glume spinulose on the keel; inferior lemma as long as the glumes, acute, retrorsely ciliate; superior floret bisexual, the lemma up to 3 mm long, narrow, oblong-lanceolate, mucronate, glabrous; anthers 2–3 mm long.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet sparingly aculeolate or almost smooth, male; inferior lemma as for the sessile spikelet; superior lemma acute, entire; anthers c. 2.5 mm long.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Roots aromatic. Rhizomes short. Basal innovations intravaginal; flabellate. Culms erect; 150-300 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 30-100 cm long; 4-10 mm wide; stiff. Leaf-blade margins scabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme. Panicle open; lanceolate; 15-40 cm long. Primary panicle branches whorled at most nodes; simple. Racemes 4-8 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes. Rhachis internodes filiform. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Raceme-bases filiform; glabrous. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; linear; dorsally compressed; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes coriaceous; smooth, or scaberulous; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; compressed slightly; 3.5-5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square; glabrous; base obtuse; inserted. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; linear; dorsally compressed; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes coriaceous; smooth, or scaberulous; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; compressed slightly; 3.5-5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square; glabrous; base obtuse; inserted.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; without keels; 5 -veined. Lower glume surface spinose; rough generally, or on flanks. Upper glume lanceolate; chartaceous; 1-keeled. Upper glume primary vein spinulose. Upper glume muticous.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; 1 length of spikelet; hyaline; 2 -veined; ciliolate on margins. Fertile lemma oblong; 2-3 mm long; hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined. Lemma apex entire; muticous. Palea 0.3-0.5 length of lemma; hyaline; 0 -veined; without keels.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 2-3 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, west tropical, west-central tropical, southern tropical, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, and northwestern. North America: southeast USA and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. FTA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Note
    Cultivated for its aromatic roots, and sometimes maintained as an ornamental.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Borneo, Cambodia, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Myanmar, Philippines, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Brazil Northeast, Cameroon, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, El Salvador, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Kazan-retto, Leeward Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malaya, Mauritius, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Niue, Pakistan, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Sri Lanka, Suriname, Taiwan, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Venezuela, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 1956 s.coll. [8759] Vetiveria zizanioides K001050442
    Oct 1, 1929 Koenig, J.G. [s.n.], India Vetiveria zizanioides K001050443 Unknown type material
    Feb 28, 1929 Wight, R. [8759], India Vetiveria zizanioides K001050439
    Robertson, S.A. [7643], Kenya Vetiveria zizanioides K000823783
    Kerr, A.F.G. [2007], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620459
    Kerr, A.F.G. [2007], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620460
    Kerr, A.F.G. [8464], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620461
    Kerr, A.F.G. [8464], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620462
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19580], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620467
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19580], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620471
    Kerr, A.F.G. [9161], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620468
    Kerr, A.F.G. [8021], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620472
    Kerr, A.F.G. [9336], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620473
    Kerr, A.F.G. [17571], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620474
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19636], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620475
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19636], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620476
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19636], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620477
    Kerr, A.F.G. [13496], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620478
    Kerr, A.F.G. [13496], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620479
    Sorensen, Th. [5768], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000688636
    Larsen, K. [1113], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000688638
    Smitinand, T. [6078], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000688639
    Smitinand, T. [6078], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000688640
    Smitinand, T. [5932], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000688641
    Smitinand, T. [5044], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000688642
    Put [2576], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620457
    Put [2576], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620458
    Put [4103], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620480
    Put [4104], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620481
    Lazarides, M. [7452], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000688637
    Wight, R. [1677] Vetiveria zizanioides K001050440
    Archer, W.A. [8445], Brazil Vetiveria zizanioides K001106137
    Marcan, A. [2280], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620469
    Lakshmahara, C. [245], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620463
    Lakshmahara, C. [245], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620464
    Lakshmahara, C. [245], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620465
    Lakshmahara, C. [245], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620466
    Lakshmahara, C. [245], Thailand Vetiveria zizanioides K000620470
    Merill, E.D. [355], Philippines Vetiveria zizanioides K001050464
    Glaziou, A. [6953], Brazil Vetiveria zizanioides K001106136
    Glaziou, A. [6953], Brazil Vetiveria zizanioides K001106138
    Glaziou, A. [14390], Brazil Vetiveria zizanioides K001106139
    s.coll. [8759] Vetiveria zizanioides K001050441
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8759], Nepal Anatherum muricatum K001131520
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8759], Nepal Anatherum muricatum K001131521
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131524
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131525
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131526
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131527
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131528
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131510
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131511
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131512
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131513
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759], India Anatherum muricatum K001131514
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759], India Anatherum muricatum K001131515
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131516
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131517
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131518
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131519
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131522
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8759] Anatherum muricatum K001131523

    First published in Bull. Inst. Fondam. Afrique Noire, Sér. A, Sci. Nat. 22: 106 (1960)

    Accepted by

    • Vigosa-Mercado, J.L. & Fonseca, R.M. (2017). Flora de Guerrero 75: 1-153. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Vigosa-Mercado, J.L. & Fonseca, R.M. (2017). Flora de Guerrero 75: 1-153. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
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    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
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    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0