1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cymbopogon Spreng.
      1. Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Sahara & Sahel to Iran and Kenya.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths persistent and investing base of culm. Culms 30-120 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform, or linear; flat, or involute; 10-35 cm long; 1-4 mm wide; aromatic. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous.
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence compound; paniculate; 5-40 cm long; dense. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; enclosed. Racemes 2; paired; deflexed; 1-3 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; semiterete; villous on margins. Rhachis hairs 2-4 mm long. Rhachis internodes linear. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Raceme-bases flattened; subequal. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels linear; semiterete; villous; with 2-4 mm long hairs.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2 in number (lower raceme); 0 in upper raceme; sessile and pedicelled. Basal sterile spikelet pedicels fused to internode in lower raceme; swollen in lower raceme. Basal sterile spikelets equalling fertile. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 4-7 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; inserted. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2 in number (lower raceme); 0 in upper raceme; sessile and pedicelled. Basal sterile spikelet pedicels fused to internode in lower raceme; swollen in lower raceme. Basal sterile spikelets equalling fertile. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 4-7 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 4-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; inserted.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear; 1 length of spikelet; chartaceous; 2-keeled; keeled all along; keeled laterally; wingless. Lower glume intercarinal veins absent. Lower glume surface concave. Lower glume apex emarginate. Upper glume lanceolate; 1-keeled. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret hyaline. Fertile lemma lanceolate; hyaline; without keel. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; straight; 5-9 mm long overall; with a straight or slightly twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, west tropical, northeast tropical, and east tropical. Asia-temperate: western Asia and Arabia. Asia-tropical: India.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. FTEA.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Compactly tufted perennial, the basal sheaths persistent; culms 20–120 cm. high.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades filiform to flat, 10–35 cm. long, 1–4 mm. wide, asperulous on the nerves.
    Inflorescences
    False panicle narrowly oblong, 5–40 cm. long; racemes 10–30 mm. long, woolly villous with hairs 2–4 mm. long, the lowermost pedicel swollen, its adjacent internode very short.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 4–7 mm. long; lower glume chartaceous, nerveless and concave between the keels, these sharp throughout, wingless; upper lemma bidentate, the awn 5–9 mm. long, almost straight, with little difference between column and limb.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 4–7 mm. long. Sessile spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 4–7 mm. long; lower glume chartaceous, nerveless and concave between the keels, these sharp throughout, wingless; upper lemma bidentate, the awn 5–9 mm. long, almost straight, with little difference between column and limb.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet narrowly lanceolate, 4–7 mm. long.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Algeria, Benin, Burkina, Central African Repu, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf States, Iran, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Somalia, Sudan, Togo, Tunisia, Western Sahara, Yemen

    Introduced into:

    Réunion

    Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8794], Nepal Andropogon schoenanthus K001128221
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8794], Myanmar Andropogon schoenanthus K001128223
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8794], Myanmar Andropogon schoenanthus K001128224
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8794], Myanmar Andropogon schoenanthus K001128225
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8794] Andropogon schoenanthus K001128222
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8794] Andropogon schoenanthus K001128214
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8794] Andropogon schoenanthus K001128215
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8794] Andropogon schoenanthus K001128216
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8794] Andropogon schoenanthus K001128217
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8794] Andropogon schoenanthus K001128218
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8794], India Andropogon schoenanthus K001128219
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8794], India Andropogon schoenanthus K001128220
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8794] Andropogon schoenanthus K001128226
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8794] Andropogon schoenanthus K001128227

    First published in Pl. Min. Cogn. Pug. 2: 15 (1815)

    Accepted by

    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 420
    • De Miré & Gillet in J. Agric. Trop. 3: 730
    • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 13: 871
    • F.T.A. 9: 268
    • Stapf in Kew Bull. 1906: 303.
    • Pl. Pugill. 2: 15 (1815)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Guinea, E. (1948). Catálogo razonado de las plantas del Sáhara Español Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 8: 357-429.
    • de Cordemoy, E.J. (1895). Flore de l'ile de la Réunion: 1-574. Librairie des sciences naturelles Paul Klincksieck, Paris.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 268 (1919).
    • Spreng., Pl. Pugill. 2: 14 (1815).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0