1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cynodon Rich.
      1. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical Old World to Australia.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; mat forming. Rhizomes elongated. Stolons present. Culms geniculately ascending; 8-40 cm long; 0.5-1 mm diam. Ligule a ciliolate membrane; 0.2-0.3 mm long. Leaf-blades flat, or conduplicate; 1-12 cm long; 2-4 mm wide; glaucous. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; glabrous, or pilose; sparsely hairy.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 4-6; digitate; unilateral; 1.5-6(-8) cm long. Rhachis flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 2-2.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 2-2.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; subequal in width; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of upper glume; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 0.5-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; laterally compressed; 2-2.5 mm long; cartilaginous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein pubescent. Lemma apex acute. Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels eciliate.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; laterally compressed.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
    Reference
    Cynodonteae. FTEA.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Stoloniferous sward-forming perennial with slender underground rhizomes; surface stolons slender; culms slender, up to 40 cm tall, erect or ascending; leaf laminas 2.5–12 cm × 1–2(3) mm, flat, or folded when dry, often short and narrow.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes usually 2–4(6) in a single whorl, 2–5.5 cm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2–2.6 mm long; glumes lanceolate in profile, the superior 1/2–3/4 as long as the spikelet; lemma silky-pubescent on the keel, sometimes thinly so.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Stoloniferous sward-forming perennial with slender underground rhizomes; surface stolons slender, prostrate; culms slender, 8–40 cm. high, 0.5–1 mm. in diameter.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat, or folded when dry, often short and narrow, 1–12 cm. long, 2–4 mm. wide, glaucous, scaberulous, with or without scattered hairs; ligule a membranous rim 0.2–0.3 mm. long, ciliate on the edge.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes usually 4–6, 1.5–6(–8) cm. long, in a single whorl.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2–2.5 mm. long; glumes lanceolate in side view, 1-nerved, the upper 1/2–3/4 as long as the spikelet; lemma silky pubescent on the keel; palea glabrous.
    Habitat
    Roadsides, old farmland, and weedy or trodden places around habitations; used as a lawn grass throughout East Africa; sea-level to 2000 m.
    Distribution
    tropical and warm temperate regions throughout the world K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Stems creeping, rooting at the nodes and producing from them fascicles of barren shoots and flowering culms; 7–40 cm. high.
    Height
    A common grass in lawns and on paths, and often a pest in agricultural land. Very variable in vegetative, and to a lesser extent spikelet, characters throughout its range, although specimens from a limited area are usually fairly constant.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Portugal, Queensland, Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Ascension, Bahamas, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Chagos Archipelago, Chile Central, Chile North, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Desventurados Is., District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Howland-Baker Is., Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Leeward Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nauru, Nebraska, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Samoa, Society Is., South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, St.Helena, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., Washington, West Virginia, Windward Is.

    Common Names

    English
    Bermuda grass, Common quick grass, Couch grass, Quick Grass

    Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1973 Prance, G.T. [5465], Brazil K001075186
    Nov 22, 1933 Hohenacker, R.F. [927], India K000245249
    Nov 22, 1933 Koenig [161], India K000245248
    Hinton, G.B. [5760], México State K000465959
    Hinton, G.B. [5667], Guerrero K000465960
    Hinton, G.B. [5456], Guerrero K000465961
    Hinton, G.B. [9833], Guerrero K000465962
    Hinton, G.B. [3745], México State K000465963
    Hinton, G.B. [3624], México State K000465964
    Hinton, G.B. [1625], México State K000465957
    Hinton, G.B. [5194], México State K000465958
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3714], Thailand K000621603
    Kerr, A.F.G. [845], Thailand K000621604
    Kerr, A.F.G. [944], Thailand K000621605
    Kerr, A.F.G. [12947], Thailand K000621606
    Kerr, A.F.G. [12947], Thailand K000621607
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19120], Thailand K000621608
    Kerr, A.F.G. [20444], Thailand K000621609
    Kerr, A.F.G. [21410], Thailand K000621610
    Clayton, W.D. [4369], Brazil K001075177
    Larsen, K. [250], Thailand K000682681
    Larsen, K. [9210], Thailand K000682684
    Hatschbach, G. [15193], Brazil K001075179
    Geesink, R. [7137], Thailand K000682682
    Geesink, R. [7138], Thailand K000682683
    Smitinand, T. [1608], Thailand K000682680
    Spruce, R. [s.n.], Peru K000201677
    Henry, A. [470], China K000885739
    Castellanos, A. [24855], Brazil K001075176
    Linden [1814], Cuba K001075175
    Collins, D.J. [1894], Thailand K000682685
    Drege [s.n], Cape Province K000365166 Unknown type material
    Drege [s.n], Cape Province K000365169 Unknown type material
    Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000365168 Unknown type material
    Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000365167 Unknown type material
    Koenig [s.n.], India K000885738
    Lazarides, M. [7436], Thailand K000682677
    Schimper, W. [311], Egypt K000244748
    Schimper, W. [311], Egypt K000244749
    Ascherson, P. [2443] K000885718
    Niyomdham [1536], Thailand K000682676
    Boisium [s.n.], Madagascar K000365057 Unknown type material
    Dallachy, J. [s.n.], Australia K000885874 Unknown type material
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3803], India K001117242
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3803], Myanmar K001117243
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3803], Myanmar K001117244
    Heckman, C.W. [111], Thailand K000682678
    Heckman, C.W. [134], Thailand K000682679
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 196], United Kingdom K000914557
    [Heredis, S.] [s.n.], Argentina K000309007 Unknown type material
    Traill, J.W.H. [1268], Brazil K001075180
    Schrenk, A.G. [s.n.] K000885719
    Glaziou, A. [13339], Brazil K001075178
    Thwaites, G.H.K [312], Sri Lanka K000245250
    s.coll. [926] K000885740
    Skvortzov, B. [285], Brazil K001075187
    Becker, A.K. [s.n.] K000885717
    Spruce [682], Brazil K001075181
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3803] K001117241
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3803] K001117245
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3803], India K001117246
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3803], India K001117247
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3803] K001117248
    s.coll. [s.n.] K001075182
    Burchell [983], Brazil K001075183
    Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K001075184
    Burchell [1027], Brazil K001075185

    First published in Syn. Pl. 1: 85 (1805)

    Accepted by

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    Literature

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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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    Kew Science Photographs
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    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
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