1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cynosurus L.
      1. Cynosurus cristatus L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Azores, Europe to NW. Iran.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 5-75 cm long; 1-3 -noded. Leaf-sheaths without keel; glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.5-1.5 mm long; truncate. Leaf-blades 2-15 cm long; 1-4 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pubescent; hairy adaxially.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle contracted; linear; secund; 1-14 cm long; 0.4-1 cm wide. Panicle branches scabrous. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster.
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas; ovate; laterally compressed; 4-6 mm long; longer than fertile; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 6-18; exserted from glumes; 4-6 mm long (linear); muticous. Spikelets comprising 2-5 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong, or cuneate; laterally compressed; 3-6 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas; ovate; laterally compressed; 4-6 mm long; longer than fertile; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 6-18; exserted from glumes; 4-6 mm long (linear); muticous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2-5 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong, or cuneate; laterally compressed; 3-6 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 3-5 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 3-5 mm long; 1-1.25 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 2 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; 3-4 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface scabrous; rough above. Lemma apex obtuse; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 0.5-1 mm long overall. Rhachilla extension 0.1 length of fertile floret.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 2 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; 2 mm long. Embryo 0.1 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: Macaronesia. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Caucasus, western Asia, and China. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. North America: western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, and southeast USA. South America: Mesoamericana and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
    Reference
    Poeae. CEH.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Austria, Azores, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Kriti, Krym, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, British Columbia, California, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile South, China Southeast, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Delaware, Falkland Is., Idaho, Irkutsk, Korea, Madeira, Maine, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Québec, Rhode I., Sakhalin, South Australia, Tasmania, Tennessee, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin

    Cynosurus cristatus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Munby [52], Algeria K000345225
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 178], United Kingdom K000914509
    Fay, M.F. [MFF146], United Kingdom K000696436

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 72 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Meyer, F.K. (2011). Beiträge zur Flora von Albanien Haussknechtia, Beih. 15: 1-220.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Probatova, N.S. & al. (2006). Flora Rossi?skogo Dal'nego Vostoka. Dopolneniya i izmeneniya k izdaniyu Sosudistye rasteniya sovetskogo Dal'nego Vostoka t. 1-8 (1985-1996): 1-454. Russian academy of sciences Far Eastern branch.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Probatova, N.S. & al. (2006). Flora Rossi?skogo Dal'nego Vostoka. Dopolneniya i izmeneniya k izdaniyu Sosudistye rasteniya sovetskogo Dal'nego Vostoka t. 1-8 (1985-1996): 1-454. Russian academy of sciences Far Eastern branch.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0