1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Dactyloctenium Willd.
      1. Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 3000 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Slender to moderately robust spreading annual; culms up to 70(–100) cm. high, usually geniculately ascending and rooting at the lower nodes, frequently shortly stoloniferous and mat-forming, less often erect.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat, 3–25 cm. long, 2.5–7.5(–12) mm. wide, papillose-hispid especially along the margins.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of (1–)3–9 linear to narrowly oblong spikes 1.2–6.5 cm. long, ascending or often radiating horizontally from the top of the culm.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 3–4-flowered, broadly ovate, 3.5–4.5 mm. long; glumes subequal, 1.5–2.2 mm. long, the lower lanceolate in profile with a thick scabrid keel, the upper elliptic to narrowly obovate in profile, the smooth keel extended into a stout divergent scabrid awn 1/2–2 times as long as the glume; lemmas narrowly ovate to ovate in profile, 2.6–4 mm. long, the keel gibbous, concave and scabrid above the middle and often extended into a stout cusp or mucro up to 1 mm. long; palea-keels winged or unwinged; anthers 0.25–0.8 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Grain ± 1 mm. long, broadly obovate to obtriangular in profile, transversely rugose.
    Habitat
    A widespread weed of open situations in grassland and open woodland, common by roadsides and on waste ground; sea-level to 2100 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 throughout Africawidely distributed in tropical and warm temperate regions of the Old World, introduced into America
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; mat forming, or caespitose. Stolons present. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 5-70 cm long; rooting from lower nodes. Ligule a ciliolate membrane, or a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 3-25 cm long; 2.5-7.5 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins tuberculate-ciliate. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 3-9; digitate; spreading, or ascending; unilateral; 1.2-6.5 cm long. Rhachis deciduous from axis; flattened; terminating in a barren extension; extension bristle-like. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets pectinate; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-4 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 3.5-4.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-4 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 3.5-4.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume ovate; 1.5-2.2 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume oblong; 1.5-2.2 mm long; 0.5-0.6 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein smooth. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex obtuse; awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn subapical; 0.8-4 mm long.
    Florets
    Fertile florets appressed to rhachilla. Fertile lemma gibbous; ovate in profile; 2.6-4 mm long; membranous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein scaberulous. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma apex acute, or cuspidate; muticous, or mucronate. Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels wingless, or winged; narrowly winged. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 0.25-0.8 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free soft pericarp; obovoid; 1 mm long; rugose.
    Distribution
    Europe: southeastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Eragrostideae. FTEA.
    Diagnostic
    Glume awn up to 2 length of body.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Slender to moderately robust spreading annual; culms up to 70(100) cm tall, usually geniculately ascending and rooting from the lower nodes, often shortly stoloniferous and mat-forming, less often erect; leaf laminas 3–25 cm × 2.5–7.5(12) mm, flat, papillose-hispid especially along the margins.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes (1)3–9, 1.2–6.75 cm long, linear to narrowly oblong, ascending or radiating.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 3.5–4.5 mm long, broadly ovate, 3–4-flowered; glumes subequal, 1.5–2.2 mm long, the inferior lanceolate in profile with a thick scabrid keel, the superior elliptic to narrowly obovate in profile, the smooth keel extended into a stout divergent scabrid awn 0.5–2 times as long as the body; lemmas 2.6–4 mm long, narrowly ovate to ovate in profile, the keels gibbous, concave and scabrid above the middle and often extended into a stout cusp or mucro up to 1 mm long; palea keels winged or wingless; anthers 0.25–0.8 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis c. 1 mm long, broadly obovate to obtriangular, transversely rugose.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Ascension, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, Italy, Jamaica, Korea, Kriti, Leeward Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Marcus I., Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., North Carolina, Northern Territory, Ohio, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Sicilia, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, St.Helena, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia, Windward Is.

    Common Names

    English
    Coast button grass, Common crowfoot, Crowfoot, Duck grass, Egyptian finger grass

    Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 1998 Nascimento, M.S.B. [1386], Brazil K001075160
    Jan 18, 1934 Roxburgh, W. [s.n.], India K000245133
    Lankester, C.H. [s.n.], Brazil K001075162
    Kerr, A.F.G. [859], Thailand K000621533
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3809], Thailand K000621534
    Kerr, A.F.G. [7840], Thailand K000621535
    Kerr, A.F.G. [7840], Thailand K000621536
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11156], Thailand K000621537
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11156], Thailand K000621538
    Hooker [s.n.] K001075151
    Sorensen, Th. [4478], Thailand K000682603
    Sorensen, Th. [1417], Thailand K000682607
    Sorensen, Th. [4438], Thailand K000682608
    van Beusekom, C.F. [1906], Thailand K000682606
    Smith, E. [785], Thailand K000682597
    Smitinand, T. [4277], Thailand K000682605
    Parry, D.E. [18], Thailand K000682601
    Put [2619], Thailand K000621539
    Put [2619], Thailand K000621540
    Eiten, G. [10399], Brazil K001075143
    Schimper, W. [801], Saudi Arabia K001075155
    Marcan, A. [2260], Thailand K000621541
    Marcan, A. [2260], Thailand K000621542
    Poiteau [s.n.], French Guiana K001075159
    Wichian [191], Thailand K000682609
    Floto, F. [7608], Thailand K000682604
    Niyomdham [1621], Thailand K000682599
    Shison, M. M. (?) [1029] K000365337 Unknown type material
    Shautz, H. L. [568], Congo K000365338 Unknown type material
    Heckman, C.W. [106], Thailand K000682602
    Rothery [95], French Guiana K001075150
    Grotta, A.S. [s.n.], Brazil K001075161
    md Haniff [2905], Thailand K000682598
    Ryves, T.B. [KS95/011], Thailand K000682600
    Traill, J.W.H. [1269], Brazil K001075163
    Glaziou, A. [6955], Brazil K001075156
    s.coll. [1761] K000907341
    Hatschbach, G.G. [24297], Brazil K001075720
    Gardner [3525], Brazil K001075147
    Gardner [3525], Brazil K001075148
    Spruce [92], Brazil K001075146
    s.coll. [s.n.] K001075149
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K001075154
    Burchell [8431], Brazil K001075144
    Burchell [2929], Brazil K001075145
    Spruce, R. [92], Brazil K001075152
    Matius [674], Brazil K001075153
    c.s. [1119] K001075157
    [Zuncke] [689], Guyana K001075158

    First published in Enum. Pl.: 1029 (1809)

    Accepted by

    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2009). Flora Mesoamericana 4(1): 1-855. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Datta, B.K., Saha, R. Roy, M. & Majumder, K. (2008). Grasses of West Tripura district, Tripura, India Pleione 2: 98-105.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
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    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
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    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
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    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
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    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
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    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
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    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
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    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/