1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Dendrocalamus Nees
      1. Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro

        This species is accepted, and its native range is India (West Bengal) to China (Yunnan).

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect; 2000-3000 cm long; 200-300 mm diam.; woody. Culm-internodes terete; thin-walled; 30-45 cm long. Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement many; with 1 branch dominant; thinner than stem. Culm-sheaths deciduous; coriaceous; purple; pubescent; hairy throughout; with dark brown hairs; auriculate; glabrous on shoulders. Culm-sheath ligule 6-12 mm high; ciliate and dentate. Culm-sheath blade lanceolate; spreading. Leaves 5-15 per branch. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 3 mm long; erose. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate; 15-45 cm long; 30-60 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation with distinct cross veins. Leaf-blade margins scabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence bractiferous; clustered at the nodes; in stellate clusters; 2-2.5 cm long; dense; with glumaceous subtending bracts; with axillary buds at base of spikelet; prophyllate below lateral spikelets; leafless between clusters. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 4-8 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 12-15 mm long; 3-4 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes suppressed between florets.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 4-8 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 12-15 mm long; 3-4 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes suppressed between florets.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume orbicular; 0.7-0.8 length of upper glume; chartaceous; without keels; 13 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins with cross-veins. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume oblate; 8-13 mm long; 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 15 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile florets increasing in size upwards. Fertile lemma oblate; 8-13 mm long; chartaceous; without keel; 25 -veined. Lemma lateral veins with cross-veins. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex acute. Palea 0.9 length of lemma; chartaceous; 6 -veined; 2-keeled but the uppermost without keels. Palea keels ciliate.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 6; 7-10 mm long; anther tip apiculate. Stigmas 1. Ovary umbonate; pubescent all over.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 7-8 mm long; hairy at apex.
    Distribution
    Africa: western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, and Malesia.
    Reference
    Bambuseae. Lin.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, China South-Central, East Himalaya, India, Laos, Myanmar

    Introduced into:

    Bangladesh, Cambodia, Ecuador, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Mauritius, Nepal, Puerto Rico, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Vietnam

    Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 19, 2008 Kerr, A.F.G. [3542], Thailand K000631337
    Jan 19, 2008 Kerr, A.F.G. [3542], Thailand K000631341
    Jan 19, 2008 Kerr, A.F.G. [3542], Thailand K000631342
    Jan 19, 2008 Kerr, A.F.G. [3150], Thailand K000631338
    Jan 19, 2008 Kerr, A.F.G. [3150], Thailand K000631339
    Jan 19, 2008 Kerr, A.F.G. [3150], Thailand K000631340
    McClure, F.A. [21282], Brazil K001032004
    McClure, F.A. [21282], Brazil K001032005
    McClure, F.A. [21282], Brazil K001032006
    McClure, F.A. [21282], Brazil K001032002
    McClure, F.A. [21282], Brazil K001032003
    McClure, F.A. [21282], Brazil K001032001
    Stocks [s.n.], Sri Lanka K000854927
    Stocks [s.n.] K000854928
    Kurz, S. [3176], Myanmar K000623354
    Kurz, S. [3176], Myanmar K000623355
    Brandis, D. [s.n.], Indian Subcontinent K000854932
    Soderstrom, T. [1624], Sri Lanka K000795385
    Anderson [s.n.], India K000854931
    s.coll. [s.n.], Myanmar K000623348
    s.coll. [s.n.], Myanmar K000623349
    s.coll. [s.n.], Myanmar K000623350
    s.coll. [s.n.], Myanmar K000623351
    s.coll. [s.n.], Myanmar K000623352
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000854929
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000854930
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000854933
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000854961
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000854960

    First published in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26: 150 (1868)

    Accepted by

    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
    • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0