1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Dichanthium Willemet
      1. Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World. It is used as animal food and a medicine, has environmental uses and for food.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms decumbent; 25-100 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 3-30 cm long; 2-7 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Peduncle glabrous. Racemes (1-)2-15; digitate; 3-7 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subterete; ciliate on margins. Rhachis internodes filiform. Raceme-bases filiform; glabrous. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; without a translucent median line; ciliate.
    Spikelets
    Basal sterile spikelets absent, or well-developed; 0-12 in number (lower raceme); 0-12 in upper raceme; barren, or male; smaller than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet lemmas awnless. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; oblong; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes; muticous. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; 2-6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; attached transversely.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets absent, or well-developed; 0-12 in number (lower raceme); 0-12 in upper raceme; barren, or male; smaller than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet lemmas awnless. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; oblong; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes; muticous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; 2-6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; cartilaginous; without keels. Lower glume surface concave; pubescent to villous; hairy below; with tubercle-based hairs (on margins & fringe); without hair tufts, or with a transverse fringe of hair. Lower glume margins ciliate. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume margins ciliolate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret hyaline; 0 -veined; without midvein; without lateral veins. Fertile lemma linear; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex entire; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical; geniculate; 8-25 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, and north-central. North America: south-central USA and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. FTEA.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Caespitose, decumbent or erect perennial with distinct short rhizomes; culms up to 200 cm high, woody and persistent, robust, geniculately ascending, simple or branched; nodes exposed and densely barbate; internodes glabrous; leaf sheaths glabrous or sparsely pilose; ligule a glabrous membrane c. 2 mm long; leaf laminas up to 30 cm × 4–4.5 mm, linear-lanceolate, glabrous for most of their length but long-pilose near the ligule.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 2–many, subdigitate, shortly pedunculate, the peduncles glabrous; rhachis internodes and pedicels pilose, sometimes on one side only; the lowermost 1–6 spikelet pairs usually homogamous, male or neuter.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelets 2–6 mm long, oblanceolate; inferior glume slightly concave, pubescent below the middle, with long tubercle-based cilia above; superior glume slightly shorter than the inferior, glabrous except for the often shortly ciliate keel and apex; inferior floret barren, the lemma c. 3.8 mm long, ovate, hyaline; superior floret stipitiform, the lemma c. 3 mm long; awn c. 25 mm long, minutely hispidulous on both column and bristle; anthers c. 1.5 mm long. Pedicelled spikelets similar to the sessile spikelets in size and shape, often slightly smaller, male or neuter.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelets 2–6 mm long, oblanceolate; inferior glume slightly concave, pubescent below the middle, with long tubercle-based cilia above; superior glume slightly shorter than the inferior, glabrous except for the often shortly ciliate keel and apex; inferior floret barren, the lemma c. 3.8 mm long, ovate, hyaline; superior floret stipitiform, the lemma c. 3 mm long; awn c. 25 mm long, minutely hispidulous on both column and bristle; anthers c. 1.5 mm long.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelets similar to the sessile spikelets in size and shape, often slightly smaller, male or neuter.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Tufted perennial up to 1 m. high.
    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Ecology
    Alt. 0 - 1500 m.
    Habit
    Herb.
    Distribution
    Introduced and naturalised in Colombia.
    Conservation
    Not Evaluated.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1500 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennial; culms 25–100 cm. high, geniculately ascending.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 3–30 cm. long, 2–7 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of (1–)2–15 subdigitate shortly pedunculate racemes, the peduncles glabrous; racemes 3–7 cm. long, the spikelets subimbricate with 0–6 smaller homogamous pairs at the base.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet narrowly oblong, 2–6 mm. long; lower glume firmly cartilaginous, slightly concave, pubescent to villous below the middle, with long bulbous-based hairs above, obtuse to subacute; awn 8–25 mm. long.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet narrowly oblong, 2–6 mm. long; lower glume firmly cartilaginous, slightly concave, pubescent to villous below the middle, with long bulbous-based hairs above, obtuse to subacute; awn 8–25 mm. long.
    [UPB]
    Environmental
    Environmental uses (State of the World's Plants 2016).
    Grains & Cereals
    Eaten by animals (State of the World's Plants 2016).
    Food
    Food (State of the World's Plants 2016).
    Materials
    Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
    Unspecified Materials Chemicals
    Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
    Medicines
    Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Botswana, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South China Sea, Sudan, Sulawesi, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Belize, Canary Is., Chagos Archipelago, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Fiji, Florida, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Kriti, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Marquesas, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nauru, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niue, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Solomon Is., Texas, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Townsend, C.C. [418], Jordan K000315617
    Townsend, C.C. [418], Jordan K000315618
    Kunth [s.n.], Egypt K000244657
    Hart, H.C. [s.n.], Jordan K000315620
    Meyers, F.S. [1004], Palestine K000315616
    Meyers, F.S. [9004], Lebanon K000315619
    Meyers, F.S. [3004], Jordan K000315642
    Al-Eisawi, D. [1139], Jordan K000315613
    Cope, T.A. [351], Jordan K000315614
    Samuelsson, G. [3140], Palestine K000315615
    Hecknam, C.W. [133], Thailand K000688672
    Rossetti, C. [153], Mali K000211872
    Rossetti, C. [197], Mali K000211873

    First published in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9: 178 (1917)

    Accepted by

    • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Vigosa-Mercado, J.L. & Fonseca, R.M. (2017). Flora de Guerrero 75: 1-153. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Greuter, W. & von Raab-Straube, E. (eds.) (2011). Euro+Med Notulae, 5 Willdenowia 41: 128-138.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Al-Rawi, A. (1987). Flora of Kuwait 2: 1-455. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 398.
    • De Miré & Gillet in J. Agric. Trop. 3: 731
    • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 13: 861
    • in F.T.A. 9: 178 (1917)
    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    • Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) http://apps.kew.org/sepasalweb/sepaweb in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Greuter, W. & von Raab-Straube, E. (eds.) (2011). Euro+Med Notulae, 5 Willdenowia 41: 128-138.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • H?, P.-H. (2000). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 471 (1972).
    • de Wet & Harlan in Bol. Soc. Arg. Bot. 12: 209 (1968).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 57 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 429 (1956).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 13 (1947).
    • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 178 (1917).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0