1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Dichanthium Willemet
      1. Dichanthium aristatum (Poir.) C.E.Hubb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is India to China (Yunnan) and Malesia.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennial; culms 20–100 cm. high, geniculately ascending.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 3–25 cm. long, 2–5 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of 1–6 subdigitate shortly pedunculate racemes, the peduncles and the culm below the inflorescence pubescent; racemes 2–8 cm. long, the spikelets imbricate, with 1–6 smaller homogamous pairs at the base.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet elliptic to obovate, 2–5 mm. long; lower glume firmly chartaceous, broadly convex, pilose below the middle, glabrous above or shortly ciliate along the margins and near the apex, broadly obtuse or with a subacute membranous tip; awn 10–20 mm. long.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet elliptic to obovate, 2–5 mm. long; lower glume firmly chartaceous, broadly convex, pilose below the middle, glabrous above or shortly ciliate along the margins and near the apex, broadly obtuse or with a subacute membranous tip; awn 10–20 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Damp places in disturbed ground; 100–500 m.
    Distribution
    T5 T6 T8 India to SE. Asiaintroduced to most other tropical countries (in Africa with scattered records southwards to South Africa)
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Culms decumbent; 20-100 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 3-25 cm long; 2-5 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Peduncle pubescent above. Racemes 1-6; digitate; 2-8 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subterete; ciliate on margins. Rhachis internodes filiform. Raceme-bases filiform; pubescent. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; without a translucent median line; ciliate.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2-12 in number (lower raceme); 2-12 in upper raceme; barren, or male; smaller than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet lemmas awnless. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; oblong; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes; muticous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or obovate; dorsally compressed; 2-5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; attached transversely. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2-12 in number (lower raceme); 2-12 in upper raceme; barren, or male; smaller than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet lemmas awnless. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; oblong; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes; muticous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or obovate; dorsally compressed; 2-5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic, or obovate; 1 length of spikelet; chartaceous; of similar consistency above, or much thinner above; without keels. Lower glume surface convex; pilose; hairy below; with simple hairs. Lower glume margins eciliate, or ciliate. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 1-keeled.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret hyaline. Fertile lemma linear; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex entire; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical; geniculate; 10-20 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Distribution
    Africa: east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: south-central USA. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. FTEA.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1500 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Caespitose perennial with short stolons; culms up to 110 cm high, robust, erect or sometimes decumbent; nodes exposed and glabrous; internodes glabrous; leaf sheaths glabrous; ligule a scarious membrane; leaf laminas up to 25 cm × 2–5 mm, linear-lanceolate, glabrous for most of their length but long-pilose near the ligule.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 1–5, subdigitate, shortly pedunculate, the peduncles and the culm below the inflorescence pubescent; rhachis internodes and pedicels usually pilose on one side, glabrous on the other; the lowermost 1–6 spikelet pairs usually homogamous, male or neuter.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelets 2–5 mm long, obovate; inferior glume slightly concave, pilose below the middle, glabrous or shortly pilose above the middle towards the margins and apex, narrowly winged towards the apex; superior glume as long as the inferior, glabrous except for the often shortly ciliate keel and margins; inferior floret barren, the lemma hyaline; superior floret stipitiform, the lemma hyaline; awn c. 22 mm long, minutely pubescent on both column and bristle; anthers c. 2 mm long. Pedicelled spikelets similar to the sessile spikelets in size and shape, male or neuter.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelets 2–5 mm long, obovate; inferior glume slightly concave, pilose below the middle, glabrous or shortly pilose above the middle towards the margins and apex, narrowly winged towards the apex; superior glume as long as the inferior, glabrous except for the often shortly ciliate keel and margins; inferior floret barren, the lemma hyaline; superior floret stipitiform, the lemma hyaline; awn c. 22 mm long, minutely pubescent on both column and bristle; anthers c. 2 mm long.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelets similar to the sessile spikelets in size and shape, male or neuter.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    China South-Central, India, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Philippines, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Ascension, Caroline Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, Free State, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, KwaZulu-Natal, Louisiana, Madagascar, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Northern Provinces, Oman, Panamá, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Seychelles, Solomon Is., St.Helena, Tanzania, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Dichanthium aristatum (Poir.) C.E.Hubb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 15, 1986 unknown [48], Mauritius K000244659
    Aug 15, 1986 Sieber [s.n], Mauritius K000244658 Unknown type material
    Aug 15, 1986 Ayres, P. B. [48], Mauritius K000244660
    Jan 1, 1939 Bojer [s.n.], Mauritius K000244661
    Laegaard, S. [21752], Thailand K000688671
    s.coll. [s.n.], Lesser Sunda Is. K000290177

    First published in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1939: 654 (1940)

    Accepted by

    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 3: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 3: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Packer, J.E. (1974). Ascension Handbook. A concise guide to Ascension Island South Atlantic ed. 2 Packer, Georgetown.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
    • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • de Wet & Harlan in Bol. Soc. Arg. Bot. 12: 213 (1968).
    • C.E. Hubbard in Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew 1939: 654 (1939).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0