1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Dichanthium Willemet
      1. Dichanthium caricosum (L.) A.Camus

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Indian Subcontinent to China (Guizhou, Yunnan) and W. Malesia.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Culms decumbent; 25-100 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 3-30 cm long; 2-7 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Peduncle glabrous. Racemes 1-10; digitate; 3-7.5 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subterete; ciliate on margins. Rhachis internodes filiform. Raceme-bases filiform; glabrous. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; without a translucent median line; ciliate.
    Spikelets
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2-6 in number (lower raceme); 2-6 in upper raceme; barren, or male; smaller than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet lemmas awnless. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; oblong; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes; muticous. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or obovate; dorsally compressed; 3-4 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; attached transversely.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2-6 in number (lower raceme); 2-6 in upper raceme; barren, or male; smaller than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet lemmas awnless. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; oblong; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes; muticous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or obovate; dorsally compressed; 3-4 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse; attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic, or obovate; 1 length of spikelet; chartaceous; of similar consistency above, or much thinner above; without keels. Lower glume surface convex; pilose; hairy below; with simple hairs. Lower glume margins eciliate, or ciliate. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 1-keeled.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret hyaline. Fertile lemma linear; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex entire; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical; geniculate; 10-20 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Distribution
    Africa: east tropical and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia and China. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern and northwestern. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, and northern South America.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. FTEA.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennial; culms 25–100 cm. high, geniculately ascending.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 3–20 cm. long, 2–7 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of 1–10 subdigitate shortly pedunculate racemes, the peduncles glabrous; racemes 3–7.5 cm. long, the spikelets imbricate, with 1–3 smaller homogamous pairs at the base.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet elliptic to obovate, 3–4 mm. long; lower glume firmly chartaceous, broadly convex, pilose below the middle, glabrous above or with scattered hairs near margin and apex, broadly obtuse or with a subacute membranous tip; awn 10–20 mm. long.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet elliptic to obovate, 3–4 mm. long; lower glume firmly chartaceous, broadly convex, pilose below the middle, glabrous above or with scattered hairs near margin and apex, broadly obtuse or with a subacute membranous tip; awn 10–20 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Disturbed places (introduced); 100–1000 m.
    Distribution
    T3 T5 T6 India and SE. Asia, introduced to Mauritius and tropical America
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, China South-Central, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Colombia, Cook Is., Cuba, Fiji, Honduras, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Niue, Queensland, Saudi Arabia, Solomon Is., Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Dichanthium caricosum (L.) A.Camus appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1921 Foulkes, T. [s.n.], Tamil Nadu K000245834 isotype
    Kerr, A.F.G. [s.n.], Thailand K000620503
    Kerr, A.F.G. [s.n.], Thailand K000620504
    Kerr, A.F.G. [9361], Thailand K000620505
    Kerr, A.F.G. [9361], Thailand K000620506
    Kerr, A.F.G. [9361], Thailand K000620507
    Kerr, A.F.G. [2614], Thailand K000620508
    Kerr, A.F.G. [6712], Thailand K000620509
    Kerr, A.F.G. [7947], Thailand K000620510
    Kerr, A.F.G. [7952], Thailand K000620511
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3894], Thailand K000620512
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3894], Thailand K000620513
    Kerr, A.F.G. [7988], Thailand K000620514
    Kerr, A.F.G. [7988], Thailand K000620515
    Kerr, A.F.G. [10052], Thailand K000620516
    Kerr, A.F.G. [10092], Thailand K000620517
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11096], Thailand K000620518
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11096], Thailand K000620519
    Kerr, A.F.G. [9744], Thailand K000620520
    Kerr, A.F.G. [9744], Thailand K000620521
    Sorensen, Th. [2159], Thailand K000688673
    Put [2146], Thailand K000620499
    Put [2146], Thailand K000620500
    Put [2536], Thailand K000620501
    Put [2536], Thailand K000620502
    Wight, R. [1687] K001050467
    Wight, R. [1687] K001050468
    Lindhard, E. [s.n.], Thailand K000688669
    Thein Lwin, U. [s.n.], Myanmar K000245649 holotype
    Laegaard [21872], Thailand K000688674
    Thwaites, G.H.K. [3556], Sri Lanka K000245652 isotype
    Foulkes, T. [s.n.], Tamil Nadu K000245648 holotype

    First published in Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 27: 549 (1921)

    Accepted by

    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Datta, B.K., Saha, R. Roy, M. & Majumder, K. (2008). Grasses of West Tripura district, Tripura, India Pleione 2: 98-105.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Datta, B.K., Saha, R. Roy, M. & Majumder, K. (2008). Grasses of West Tripura district, Tripura, India Pleione 2: 98-105.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
    • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • de Wet & Harlan in Bol. Soc. Arg. Bot. 12:215 (1968).
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 100 (1965).
    • A. Camus in Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 27:549 (1921).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0