1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Dichanthium Willemet
      1. Dichanthium foveolatum (Delile) Roberty

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Sahara to Tanzania and Myanmar.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths pubescent. Culms geniculately ascending; 15-80 cm long; wiry. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades flat, or convolute; 1-15 cm long; 1-3 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; subtended by a spatheole; enclosed. Spatheole linear; 3.5-5 cm long; herbaceous. Peduncle pubescent above. Racemes 1; single; 1.5-4.5 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subterete; ciliate on margins. Rhachis internodes filiform. Rhachis internode tip oblique; flat. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; without a translucent median line; ciliate.
    Spikelets
    Basal sterile spikelets absent, or well-developed; 0-2 in number; barren, or male; smaller than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet lemmas awnless. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas; oblong; as long as fertile; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes without depressions, or pitted. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes; muticous. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 2.5-4 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus bearded; base obtuse; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs 0.5 length of spikelet.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets absent, or well-developed; 0-2 in number; barren, or male; smaller than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet lemmas awnless. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas; oblong; as long as fertile; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes without depressions, or pitted. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes; muticous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 2.5-4 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus bearded; base obtuse; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs 0.5 length of spikelet.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma; shiny. Lower glume elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; cartilaginous; without keels. Lower glume surface concave; pitted; glabrous. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume margins ciliolate. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret 2 mm long; hyaline; 0 -veined; without midvein; without lateral veins; ciliolate on margins. Fertile lemma linear; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex entire, or dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical, or from a sinus; geniculate; 12-18 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, northeast tropical, and east tropical. Asia-temperate: western Asia and Arabia. Asia-tropical: India and Indo-China.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. FTEA.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennial with silky hairy basal sheaths; culms ascending, 15–80 cm. high, wiry.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades very narrow, 1–15 cm. long, 1–3 mm. wide, flat, or rolled, green or glaucous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a solitary raceme subtended by a narrow spatheole, these loosely aggregated on the culms; raceme 1.5–4.5 cm. long, with 0–1 smaller homo-gamous pairs of spikelets at the base.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet narrowly elliptic, 2.5–4 mm. long; lower glume cartilaginous, glabrous, shining, with a circular depression in the upper third, acute; upper lemma entire or minutely bidentate, its awn 12–18 mm. long.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet with or without a pit. Sessile spikelet narrowly elliptic, 2.5–4 mm. long; lower glume cartilaginous, glabrous, shining, with a circular depression in the upper third, acute; upper lemma entire or minutely bidentate, its awn 12–18 mm. long.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet with or without a pit.
    Figures
    Fig. 167.
    Habitat
    Local patches in deciduous bushland or subdesert grassland; 0–800 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K4 K7 T6 T8 N. Africa and Mali, eastwards through the Middle East and Somalia to India and Sri Lanka
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Densely tufted perennial up to 60 cm. high, with wiry culms
    Leaves
    Glaucous leaf-blades.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Algeria, Bangladesh, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gulf States, India, Iran, Kenya, Kuwait, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Myanmar, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Yemen

    Dichanthium foveolatum (Delile) Roberty appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Boissiera 9: 163 (1960)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Al-Rawi, A. (1987). Flora of Kuwait 2: 1-455. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad) Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.
    • Guinea, E. (1948). Catálogo razonado de las plantas del Sáhara Español Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 8: 357-429.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Roberty in Boissiera 9: 170 (1960).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/