1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Eleusine Gaertn.
      1. Eleusine africana Kenn.-O'Byrne

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa to Arabian Peninsula.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; caespitose. Basal innovations flabellate. Culms geniculately ascending; of moderate stature; 40-90 cm long; without nodal roots, or rooting from lower nodes. Culm-internodes elliptical in section. Leaves mostly basal. Leaf-sheaths keeled. Ligule a ciliolate membrane; 0.6-1 mm long; truncate. Leaf-blades flat, or conduplicate; 5-35 cm long; 2.5-6 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Peduncle glabrous (at raceme base). Racemes 3-15; digitate; unilateral; 4-17 cm long; 4-8 mm wide. Rhachis wingless; flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-9 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 4-8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-9 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 4-8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 2 mm long; 0.6-0.7 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; 2-3 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 3-4.7 mm long; 0.7-0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; 3 -veined (with subsidiaries in keel). Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate in profile; 3.5-5 mm long; membranous; 3 -veined (excluding subsidiaries). Lemma midvein with contiguous subsidiary veins (3-veined). Lemma apex acute. Palea 0.9-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free soft pericarp; oblong; isodiametric; trigonous; concealed by floret; 1.2-1.6 mm long; black; granular and rugose.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern and central. Africa: north, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia and Arabia. Australasia: Australia. North America: northeast USA and southeast . South America: Caribbean. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
    Reference
    Eragrostideae. Fl Eth 1997.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Caespitose annual; culms robust, up to 100 cm tall, erect or geniculately ascending, often branching from the lower nodes; ligule with a definite ciliate fringe; leaf laminas 5–35 cm × 3–6 mm, usually folded.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 3–17, 3.5–15.5 cm × 4–7 mm.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 4.6–7.8 mm long, elliptic; glumes acute, the inferior 2–3.2(3.9) mm long, often 2–3-nerved, the superior 3–4.7 mm long; lemmas 3.7–4.9 mm long, lanceolate in profile, acute to subacute.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis 1.2–1.6 mm long, oblong to broadly oblong, the surface uniformly granular and obliquely ridged.
    Cytology
    Tetraploid, 2n = 36.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Chad, Comoros, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Belgium, Canary Is., Great Britain, Italy, South Carolina

    Eleusine africana Kenn.-O'Byrne appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 1970 Letouzey, R. [6828], Cameroon K000731061
    Dec 1, 1970 Quarré [3242], Congo K000731062
    Dec 1, 1970 Harrison, M.N. [200], Sudan K000731097
    Jun 1, 1957 Mooney, H.F. [6108], Ethiopia K000731094
    Jun 1, 1957 Lely, H.V. [415], Nigeria K000731034
    Jun 1, 1957 Hagerup, O. [509], Niger K000731031
    Jun 1, 1957 Bally, P.R.O. [B5339], Kenya K000731107
    Jun 1, 1957 Aetta, S.C. [48], Rwanda K000731063
    Jun 1, 1957 Hist, W. [14], Uganda K000731106
    de Winter, B. [5356], Namibia K000731140
    Bingham, M.G. [11991], Zambia K000731124
    Wilman, M. [H. K. 1], Cape Province K000365335 isotype
    Wilman, M. [H. K. 1], Cape Province K000365334 holotype
    Riberty, J. [3923], Mali K000731035
    May 10, 1988 Balfour, B. [361], Yemen Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000782871
    May 10, 1988 Schweinfurth, D.G. [s.n.], Yemen Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000782870
    Jan 1, 1982 Smook, L. [4274], South Africa Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000731142
    Apr 1, 1971 Hall, J.B. [K46], Nigeria Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000731033
    Apr 1, 1971 Hall, J.B. [447], Ghana Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000731036
    Apr 1, 1971 White, L.P. [26], Niger Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000731030
    Feb 1, 1971 Greenway, P.J. [11251], Tanzania Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000731110
    Feb 1, 1971 Mwangangi, O. [226], Kenya Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000731108
    Faden, R.B. [74714], Kenya Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000731109
    Thulin, M. [1227], Tanzania Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000731111
    Wood, J.R. [1131], Yemen Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000782872
    Aweke, G. [952], Ethiopia Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000731095
    Miller, A.G. [7695], Oman Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000782875
    Smith, P.P. [822], Zambia Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000731125
    Smook, L. [5194], Namibia Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000731138
    Smook, L. [4732], South Africa Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000731141
    Smook, L. [1858], South Africa Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000731144
    Backéus, I. [1262], Tanzania Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000731112
    Du Toit, P.C.V. [609], South Africa Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000731143
    Hiremath, S.C. [114], India Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000782927
    Gray, M.T. [358], Kenya Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000731113
    Wood, J, R, [1788], Yemen Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000782873
    Allison, P.N. [3], Oman Eleusine indica subsp. africana K000782876

    First published in Kew Bull. 12: 65 (1957)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wallnöfer, B. (2014). Über die Verbreitung von Eleusine indica und E. tristachya (Gramineae) in Österreich Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, B 116: 181-190.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wallnöfer, B. (2014). Über die Verbreitung von Eleusine indica und E. tristachya (Gramineae) in Österreich Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, B 116: 181-190.
    • Greuter, W. & von Raab-Straube, E. (eds.) (2012). Euro+Med Notulae, 6 Willdenowia 42: 283-285.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0