1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Elymus L.
      1. Elymus canadensis L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is N. America.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes absent. Culms decumbent; 80-150 cm long. Leaf-sheath oral hairs lacking. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.5-1 mm long; truncate. Leaf-blades flat, or conduplicate; 15-40 cm long; 4-12 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pubescent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; deflexed, or drooping; bilateral; 8-20 cm long. Rhachis flattened; pubescent on surface (sparsely). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; irregular. Rhachis internodes oblong. Spikelets in pairs, or clustered at each node. Fertile spikelets sessile; 2-4 in the cluster.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-5 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic to oblong; laterally compressed; 12-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous; base truncate.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-5 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic to oblong; laterally compressed; 12-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous; base truncate.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume linear; 5-7 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; coriaceous; without keels; 2-4 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins ribbed. Lower glume surface scabrous. Lower glume apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn 5-7 mm long. Upper glume linear; 5-7 mm long; 0.6-0.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; without keels; 2-4 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume surface scabrous. Upper glume apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn 5-7 mm long.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; 8-10 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface glabrous, or hispidulous. Lemma apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn flexuous; 15-50 mm long overall. Palea 2 -veined. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3. Stigmas 2; protandrous; laterally exserted. Ovary pubescent on apex.
    Fruits
    Hilum linear.
    Distribution
    North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico.
    Reference
    Triticeae. Gould.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes absent. Culms erect; 100-180(-200) cm long; 9-16 -noded. Culm-nodes glabrous. Leaves basal and cauline. Leaf-sheaths longer than adjacent culm internode; glabrous on surface, or hirsute. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate; 1-3 mm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1 mm long. Leaf-blades (8-)10-20(-24) mm wide; dark green. Leaf-blade surface pilose; sparsely hairy; hairy adaxially.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; drooping; bilateral; 10-30 cm long; 30-50 mm wide. Rhachis flattened; pubescent on surface (above). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis. Rhachis internodes linear; 5-8(-12) mm long. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising (3-)4-6(-7) fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic to oblong; laterally compressed; 12-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising (3-)4-6(-7) fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic to oblong; laterally compressed; 12-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume linear; 7-12 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent, or distinct. Lower glume surface glabrous, or puberulous, or hispidulous. Lower glume apex awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn (5-)8-15(-18) mm long. Upper glume linear; 7-12 mm long; 0.75 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent, or distinct. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent, or hispidulous. Upper glume awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn (5-)8-15(-18) mm long.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; 10-15 mm long; coriaceous; 5 -veined. Lemma surface glabrous, or pubescent. Lemma apex awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn curved; spreading; 15-25(-30) mm long overall. Palea 9-14 mm long. Palea apex dentate; 2 -fid. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 2-3.5 mm long.
    Distribution
    North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, north-central USA, and northeast USA.
    Reference
    Triticeae. Fl N Amer 2007.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Arizona, Arkansas, British Columbia, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Northeast, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

    Introduced into:

    Austria, Czechoslovakia, Transcaucasus

    Elymus canadensis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Ball, C. R. [117], Iowa K000674984

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 83 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0