1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Elymus L.
      1. Elymus caninus (L.) L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe to Siberia and W. Himalaya.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect; 30-110 cm long; 2-5 -noded. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface, or pubescent. Leaf-sheath oral hairs lacking. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.5-1.5 mm long; erose; truncate. Leaf-blades 10-30 cm long; 4-13 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface ungrooved; scaberulous; glabrous, or pilose. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; drooping, or erect; bilateral; 5-20 cm long. Rhachis flattened; scabrous on margins. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2-6 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate, or oblong; laterally compressed; 10-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous; base truncate. Rhachilla internodes eventually visible between lemmas.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2-6 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate, or oblong; laterally compressed; 10-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous; base truncate. Rhachilla internodes eventually visible between lemmas.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; subequal in width; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 7-10 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; coriaceous; without keels; 2-5 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins ribbed. Lower glume surface scabrous. Lower glume apex acuminate; muticous to mucronate. Upper glume lanceolate; 7-10 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; without keels; 2-5 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume surface scabrous; rough on veins. Upper glume apex acuminate; muticous to mucronate.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate to oblong; 9-13 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn straight, or flexuous; 7-20 mm long overall; limb scabrous. Palea lanceolate; 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels scabrous. Palea apex truncate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; elliptic; membranous. Anthers 3; 2-3 mm long. Stigmas 2; protandrous; laterally exserted. Ovary pubescent on apex.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; fusiform; isodiametric; estipitate; sulcate on hilar side; smooth; apex unappendaged. Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 0.9 length of caryopsis. Endosperm farinose.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India. North America: Subarctic.
    Reference
    Triticeae. CEH.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Altay, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Central European Rus, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Japan, Oregon, Washington

    Elymus caninus (L.) L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 17, 2014 Don, G. [s.n.] K001096334 holotype
    Sep 4, 2013 Felissow, C. [s.n.] K000674926 isotype
    Don, G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000674891 isotype
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000674924
    Nilsson, N. H. [s.n.], Russian Federation K000674925

    First published in Fl. Suec., ed. 2: 39 (1755)

    Accepted by

    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
    • Roshevitz, R.J. & al. (eds.) (1950). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 2: 1-315. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0