1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Elytrophorus P.Beauv.
      1. Elytrophorus spicatus (Willd.) A.Camus

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annual; culms 5–60 cm. high, erect.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades up to 25 cm. long and 4 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 2–30 cm. long, the glomerules (3–)5–7 mm. in diameter, often confluent, rarely elongated into short side branches, the bracts scarcely exceeding the spikelets.
    Spikelets
    Lower glume 1.5–2 mm. long, the upper 1.5–2.5 mm. long; lemma 2–2.5(–3) mm. long (including awn), drawn out in a slender awn of variable length but commonly about as long as the body of the lemma; palea-wings very variable in size and shape; lodicules 1–2; anthers 1–3, 0.3 mm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 45, p. 136.
    Habitat
    Wet depressions, pond margins, rice fields; 870–1400 m.
    Distribution
    T2 T4 T5 T8 tropical Africa, India, Indo-China and Australia
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Annual up to 60 cm tall, erect or geniculately ascending; leaf lamina up to 30 cm × 4 mm, glabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 3–30 cm long, the glomerules ovoid to cylindrical, 5–7 mm in diameter, often confluent, the bracts scarcely exceeding the spikelets.
    Glume
    Glumes 1.8–2.3 mm long, lanceolate, scabrid; lemmas (1)2–2.5(3.2) mm long (including awn), broadly elliptic, drawn out into a slender awn 1–2.5 times as long as the body of the lemma; palea wings inconspicuous, enfolded by the lemma.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect; 5-60 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 5-25 cm long; 2-4 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle glomerate; linear; continuous, or interrupted; 2-30 cm long; (0.3-)0.5-0.7 cm wide. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 3-5 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets sessile; 3-5 in the cluster. Involucre composed of imperfect spikelets.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes; linear; 1-2 mm long; as long as fertile, or longer than fertile; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes membranous; 1 -veined; truncate; awned; with 0.5-1 mm long awn.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-6 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 2-3.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes; linear; 1-2 mm long; as long as fertile, or longer than fertile; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes membranous; 1 -veined; truncate; awned; with 0.5-1 mm long awn.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-6 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 2-3.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet; similar to fertile lemma in texture. Lower glume lanceolate; 1-1.5 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn 0.5-1 mm long. Upper glume lanceolate; 1-1.5 mm long; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn 0.5-1 mm long.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; 1-1.5 mm long; membranous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein ciliate. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 1 mm long overall. Palea orbicular; 2 -veined. Palea keels winged; with toothed wings. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 1, or 2. Anthers 1-3; 0.3 mm long. Stigmas 2; sparsely hairy.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free soft pericarp.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: China. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, and Malesia. Australasia: Australia.
    Reference
    Arundineae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Annual, 15–60 cm. high
    Ecology
    Swamps and old rice fields.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, China South-Central, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Lesser Sunda Is., Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Queensland, Senegal, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Elytrophorus spicatus (Willd.) A.Camus appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 5, 1934 Rottler, J.P. [s.n.], India K000907537
    Mar 5, 1925 Kerr, A.F.G. [2815], Thailand K000621683
    McClintock [86], Cameroon K000182125
    Bidgood, S. [5946], Tanzania K000468479
    D.M. [56], Australia K000907539
    Clarke, C.B. [s.n.], India K000907538
    Mueller, F.J.H. [s.n.], Australia K000907540
    Muller, F.J.H. [s.n.], Australia K000907541
    Muller, F.J.H. [s.n.], Australia K000907542
    Muller, F.J.H. [s.n.], Australia K000907543
    s.coll. [s.n.], Australia K000907544
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3825], Nepal Elytrophorus articulatus K001117334
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3825] Elytrophorus articulatus K001117331
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3825], India Elytrophorus articulatus K001117332
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3825] Elytrophorus articulatus K001117333

    First published in H.Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 7: 547 (1923)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad) Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 396.
    • in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 7: 547 (1923)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad) Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 38 (1965).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 17 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 447 (1956).
    • A. Camus in Lecomte, Fl. Gén. Indo-Chine 7: 547 (1923).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0