1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Eriochloa Kunth
      1. Eriochloa procera (Retz.) C.E.Hubb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to Mozambique, Madagascar, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Australia.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annual; culms 20–100 cm. high, erect or geniculately ascending.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 2–30 cm. long, 2–4 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 4–20 cm. long; racemes 2–10 cm. long, the rhachis puberulous, triquetrous, bearing paired spikelets; pedicels commonly glabrous, those of a pair often fused below.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets lanceolate, (2.5–)3–4 mm. long, thinly pubescent; lower glume absent; upper glume acute to acuminate; lower floret represented only by a lemma; upper lemma with a mucro 0.3–0.5 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Damp places and stream sides; 200–1700 m.
    Distribution
    K4 K6 T3 T8 U2 Zaire, Mozambiquethroughout SE. Asiaintroduced to tropical America
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 20-100 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 2-30 cm long; 2-4 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 3-10; borne along a central axis; unilateral; 2-10 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 4-20 cm long. Rhachis angular; puberulous on surface. Spikelet packing regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels free, or fused to each other; united below; oblong; glabrous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; cuspidate, or acuminate; (2.5-)3-4 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus globular; incorporating lowest rhachilla internode with adnate lower glume; glabrous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; cuspidate, or acuminate; (2.5-)3-4 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus globular; incorporating lowest rhachilla internode with adnate lower glume; glabrous.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex acute, or acuminate; muticous.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; elliptic; 0.9 length of spikelet; 5 -veined; pubescent; acute, or acuminate; muticous. Fertile lemma elliptic; 2 mm long; indurate; without keel. Lemma surface granulose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse; mucronate. Principal lemma awn 0.3-0.5 mm long overall. Palea involute; indurate.
    Distribution
    Africa: northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, northwestern, and north-central. South America: northern South America and western South America.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 500 m.; Llanura del Caribe.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Annual.
    Diagnostic
    Like E. fatmensis except: pedicels commonly glabrous, those of a pair often fused below; superior glume acute to acuminate.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    East Himalaya

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Burundi, China Southeast, Ethiopia, Hainan, India, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, South Australia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Arizona, Ascension, California, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Colombia, Cook Is., Ecuador, Fiji, Guyana, Hawaii, Marianas, Mississippi, Ogasawara-shoto, Peru, Samoa, St.Helena, Suriname, Tonga

    Eriochloa procera (Retz.) C.E.Hubb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 20, 1931 s.coll. [s.n.], Andhra Pradesh K000958819
    Apr 20, 1931 Koenig, J.G. [s.n.], India K000958820 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1930 Gamble, J.S. [21250], Andhra Pradesh K000245314 isotype
    Kerr, A.F.G. [1954], Thailand K000621026
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3759], Thailand K000621027
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3789], Thailand K000621028
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3789], Thailand K000621029
    Kerr, A.F.G. [4392], Thailand K000621030
    Kerr, A.F.G. [6708], Thailand K000621031
    Kerr, A.F.G. [6968], Thailand K000621032
    Kerr, A.F.G. [7074], Thailand K000621033
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11095], Thailand K000621034
    Kerr, A.F.G. [16049], Thailand K000621035
    Kerr, A.F.G. [20442], Thailand K000621036
    Sorensen, Th. [2032], Thailand K000688136
    Larsen, K. [8001], Thailand K000688137
    Larsen, K. [1421], Thailand K000688138
    Schimper [1748], Ethiopia K000282000
    Smitinand, T. [4531], Thailand K000688139
    Smitinand, T. [4557], Thailand K000688140
    Smitinand, T. [5819], Thailand K000688141
    Smitinand, T. [5399], Thailand K000688143
    Put [2583], Thailand K000621037
    Kotschy [382], Sudan K000282001
    Merrill, E.D. [3333], Philippines K000290249 isolectotype
    Merrill, E.D. [7], Philippines K000290250
    Laegaard [21748], Thailand K000688142
    Merrill, E.D. [210], Philippines K000290613
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8750] Helopus annulatus K001131478
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8750] Helopus annulatus K001131479
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8750] Helopus annulatus K001131480
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8750] Helopus annulatus K001131481
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8750] Helopus annulatus K001131482
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8750] Helopus annulatus K001131467
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8750] Helopus annulatus K001131468
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8750] Helopus annulatus K001131469
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8750] Helopus annulatus K001131470
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8750] Helopus annulatus K001131471
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8750] Helopus annulatus K001131472
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8750] Helopus annulatus K001131473
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8750], Bangladesh Helopus annulatus K001131474
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8750], India Helopus annulatus K001131475
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8750] Helopus annulatus K001131476
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8750] Helopus annulatus K001131477

    First published in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1930: 256 (1930)

    Accepted by

    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Veldkamp, J.F. & al. (2013). A revision of Mnesithea (Gramineae - Rottboelliinae) in Malesia and Thailand Blumea 58: 277-292.
    • Starr, F. & Starr, K. (2011). New plant records for Midway atoll, Maui and Kaho'olawe Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 110: 23-35.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Starr, F. & Starr, K. (2011). New plant records for Midway atoll, Maui and Kaho'olawe Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 110: 23-35.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Packer, J.E. (1974). Ascension Handbook. A concise guide to Ascension Island South Atlantic ed. 2 Packer, Georgetown.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Masamune, G. (1942). Enumeratio phanerogamarum Bornearum: 1-739. Taihoku, Formosa.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 72 (1965).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 33 (1960).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 47 (1958).
    • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 41 (1958).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 3: 82 (1955).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 20 (1947).
    • C.E. Hubbard in Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew 1930: 256 (1930).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0