1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Festuca Tourn. ex L.
      1. Festuca caprina Nees

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to S. Africa.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths persistent and investing base of culm; with fibrous dead sheaths. Culms 30-90 cm long; 1-2(-3) -noded. Leaf-sheaths smooth; glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.5-1 mm long. Leaf-blades filiform; flat, or involute; 4-25 cm long; 0.5-1.5 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation without layer of subepidermal sclerenchyma masking vein striation. Leaf-blade surface smooth, or scaberulous; rough adaxially.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; effuse; 5-20 cm long. Primary panicle branches 1-2 -nate. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 4-6(-9) fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 10-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 4-6(-9) fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 10-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume linear; 3-5.5 mm long; 0.8 length of upper glume; chartaceous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 3.5-6.5 mm long; 0.7-0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile florets divergent. Fertile lemma elliptic; 5-7 mm long; chartaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous; glabrous, or pubescent. Lemma apex emarginate, or acute; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 1-3 mm long overall. Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels scaberulous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 2.5-3 mm long. Ovary pubescent on apex.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; hairy at apex. Hilum linear.
    Distribution
    Africa: east tropical, southern tropical, and south.
    Reference
    Poeae. FTEA.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Densely tufted perennial; culms 30–90 cm. high, the base clad in the fibrous remnants of old leaf-sheaths.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 4–25 cm. long, mostly involute and filiform, rarely flat and up to 1.5 mm. wide, typically smooth, striate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle narrowly ovate, 5–20 cm. long, loose.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 4–6(–9)-flowered, oblong, 10–15 mm. long, gaping; lower glume subulate to narrowly lanceolate, 3–5.5 mm. long, 1-nerved; upper glume lanceolate, 3.5–6.5 mm. long, 3-nerved; lemmas glabrous, scaberulous or rarely pubescent, the lower 5–7 mm. long, with a short awn 1–3 mm. long from the entire or obscurely bilobed tip; palea as long as the lemma, the keels scabrid; ovary hairy on the top.
    Habitat
    Upland grassland; 2000–3000 m.
    Distribution
    T7 southward to the Cape
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Habit
    A very densely caespitose perennial.
    Culms
    Culms 30-100 cm. tall, 1-2(3)-noded, erect, slender, wiry, smooth, glabrous.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf-sheaths fairly tight, open towards the mouth, smooth; the lower persistent, splitting into brown fibres which form more or less dense cushions around the culm-bases.
    Ligules
    Ligule very short, usually less than 1 mm. long.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf-laminae 3-25 x 0·05-0·2 cm., usually involute and filiform, rarely expanded, smooth, or inconspicuously scaberulous on the upper surface.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 5-20 cm. long, open, rarely slightly contracted, narrowly ovate in outline, erect or somewhat drooping; branches slender but less flexuous than in the preceding sp., single or paired, simple or branched near the base.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels unequal, short.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 10-15 mm. long, 4-7(9-)-flowered, oblong, gaping, bright green or tinged with dark purple, usually erect, rarely drooping.
    Glume
    Glumes unequal, chartaceous, acute; the inferior 3-5·5 mm. long, 1-nerved, narrowly lanceolate to subulate; the superior 3·5-6·5 mm. long, 3-nerved, lanceolate.
    Lemma
    Lemmas 5-7·5 mm. long, dorsally scaberulous, sometimes thinly pubescent, lanceolate, with the apex tapering into a fine awn 1-3 mm. in length.
    Palea
    Palea with the keels scabrous.
    Anthers
    Anthers 2·5-3 mm. long.
    Ovary
    Ovary shortly pilose at the apex.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cape Provinces, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Northern Provinces, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Festuca caprina Nees appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 1985 Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000345255 syntype
    Jul 1, 1985 Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000345256 lectotype
    Jul 1, 1985 Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000345257 lectotype
    Jul 1, 1985 Drege [s.mn.s.n.], South Africa K000345258 isolectotype
    Jul 1, 1985 Flanagan, H.G. [s.n.], South Africa K000345259 Unknown type material
    Jul 1, 1985 Buchanan, J. [37], South Africa K000345260 syntype
    Jul 1, 1985 Buchanan, J. [41], South Africa K000345261
    Jul 1, 1985 Buchanan, J. [38], South Africa K000345262 syntype
    Jul 1, 1985 Rudatis, H. [122], South Africa K000345263 isolectotype

    First published in Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill.: 443 (1841)

    Accepted by

    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 42 (1958).
    • Nees, Fl. Afr. Austr.: 443 (1841).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0