1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Festuca Tourn. ex L.
      1. Festuca tolucensis Kunth

        This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Mexico to Colombia.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose; clumped densely. Cataphylls inconspicuous. Rhizomes absent. Basal innovations intravaginal. Culms erect; of moderate stature; straight; 50-100 cm long; 1.5-2 mm diam.; without nodal roots. Culm-internodes terete. Culm-nodes constricted; brown; without exudate; glabrous. Lateral branches lacking. Leaves mostly basal; 0-1 per branch. Leaf-sheaths tight; unthickened at base; open for most of their length; without keel; striately veined; scaberulous; glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-2.5 mm long; membranous; white; entire; acute. Leaf-blade base symmetrical. Leaf-blades straight; filiform; involute; elliptic in section; 12-25 cm long; 1-1.5 mm wide; coriaceous; stiff, or firm; yellowish green, or dark green. Leaf-blade midrib indistinct. Leaf-blade venation indistinct; with 3-4 inner ridges; with subepidermal sclerenchyma strands similar in size; with subepidermal sclerenchyma attached to veins below; with continuous uniform subepidermal sclerenchyma layer on the underside. Leaf-blade surface ribbed; scabrous; puberulous; moderately hairy; hairy adaxially. Leaf-blade margins scabrous; glabrous. Leaf-blade apex acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; with 1 peduncles per sheath. Peduncle terete; 15-30 cm long; eglandular; glabrous. Panicle open; lanceolate, or ovate; continuous, or interrupted; dense; straight; 11-20 cm long; bearing few spikelets. Primary panicle branches ascending, or spreading; 1-2 -nate; moderately divided; naked below, or bearing spikelets almost to the base. Panicle branches straight, or arcuate. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-4(-6) fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 8-12(-15) mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous. Rhachilla internodes scaberulous. Floret callus glabrous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-4(-6) fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 8-12(-15) mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous. Rhachilla internodes scaberulous. Floret callus glabrous.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; subequal in width; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 6-8.5 mm long; 0.75-0.85 length of upper glume; chartaceous; mid-green, or light brown; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume oblong; 6-7.4 mm long; 0.9-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; dark green, or light brown; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; symmetrical; 6-8 mm long; chartaceous; dark green, or light brown; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma lateral veins with distinct primaries but obscure intermediates. Lemma surface scaberulous. Lemma apex acuminate; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn stiff; 0-1 mm long overall. Palea 0.9 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels scabrous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 2.8-3.4 mm long; yellow.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum linear.
    Distribution
    North America: Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, northern South America, and western South America.
    Reference
    Poeae. Stancik 2005.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 3000 - 4000 m.; Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Venezuela

    Festuca tolucensis Kunth appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Liebmann [511], Mexico Festuca aequipaleata K000433554 isolectotype

    First published in F.W.H.von Humboldt, A.J.A.Bonpland & C.S.Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 153 (1816)

    Accepted by

    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0