1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Heteropogon Pers.
      1. Heteropogon contortus (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical to S. Central Europe.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Caespitose perennial with laterally compressed leaf sheaths; culms up to 100 cm high, erect.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminas 3–30 cm × 2–8 mm, abruptly narrowed at the apex.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 3–10 cm long, mostly long-exserted, solitary or aggregated into a scanty false panicle, the awns eventually twisted together into a terminal spire; homogamous spikelet pairs 3–17, resembling the pedicelled spikelets.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet 5.5–10 mm long (including the ferociously pungent and rufously barbate callus 2–3 mm long); inferior glume elliptic-oblong, brown, hispidulous; awn 5–8 cm long, hirtellous.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet 5–15 mm long; inferior glume green with yellowish membranous margins, without glands, the indumentum ranging from absent to tuberculate-villous; callus 2–3 mm long. Sessile spikelet 5.5–10 mm long (including the ferociously pungent and rufously barbate callus 2–3 mm long); inferior glume elliptic-oblong, brown, hispidulous; awn 5–8 cm long, hirtellous.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet 5–15 mm long; inferior glume green with yellowish membranous margins, without glands, the indumentum ranging from absent to tuberculate-villous; callus 2–3 mm long.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Untidily tufted perennial, the basal sheaths laterally compressed; culms 30–100 cm. high, erect.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat, 3–30 cm. long, 2–8 mm. wide, abruptly narrowed at the tip.
    Inflorescences
    Homogamous pairs 3–17, resembling the pedicelled spikelets. Racemes 3–10 cm. long, mostly long-exserted, solitary or aggregated into a scanty false panicle, the awns forming a twisted spire.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet 5.5–10 mm. long, including a ferociously pungent and rufously bearded callus 2–3 mm. long; lower glume elliptic-oblong, brown, hispidulous; awn 5–8 cm. long, hirtellous. Pedicelled spikelet 5–15 mm. long; lower glume green with yellowish membranous margins, without glands, the hairiness varying from glabrous to tuberculate-villous; callus 2–3 mm. long.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet 5.5–10 mm. long, including a ferociously pungent and rufously bearded callus 2–3 mm. long; lower glume elliptic-oblong, brown, hispidulous; awn 5–8 cm. long, hirtellous.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet 5–15 mm. long; lower glume green with yellowish membranous margins, without glands, the hairiness varying from glabrous to tuberculate-villous; callus 2–3 mm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 191.
    Habitat
    Deciduous bushland and wooded grassland; often the dominant species in open grassy places on dry soils; 0–2100 m.
    Distribution
    tropical and warm temperate regions generally K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Basal innovations intravaginal. Culms erect; 30-100 cm long; 1.5-3 mm diam. Culm-internodes solid. Culm-nodes black. Lateral branches fastigiate. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths keeled. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 1 mm long. Collar glabrous, or pilose. Leaf-blades 3-30 cm long; 2-8 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface ribbed. Leaf-blade apex abruptly acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Peduncle antrorsely scabrous above. Racemes 1; single; erect; unilateral; 3-10 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; glabrous on margins. Rhachis internodes linear. Rhachis internode tip oblique. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels oblong; semiterete; 0.2 length of fertile spikelet.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 6-34 in number; larger than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet glumes smooth on margins; lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; asymmetrical; dorsally compressed; 5-15 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus linear; 2-3 mm long. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; eglandular; winged on margins; distinctly veined; smooth, or tuberculate; glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose, or villous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 5.5-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; 2-3 mm long; bearded; base pungent; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs red; 0.2 length of spikelet. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 6-34 in number; larger than fertile. Basal sterile spikelet glumes smooth on margins; lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; asymmetrical; dorsally compressed; 5-15 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus linear; 2-3 mm long. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; eglandular; winged on margins; distinctly veined; smooth, or tuberculate; glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose, or villous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 5.5-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; 2-3 mm long; bearded; base pungent; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs red; 0.2 length of spikelet.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; with lower wider than upper; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; dark brown; without keels; 9 -veined. Lower glume surface puberulous, or pubescent, or pilose. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume linear; coriaceous; without keels. Upper glume muticous.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear; 1 length of fertile lemma; hyaline; 2 -veined; erose. Fertile lemma linear; 3-5 mm long; membranous; 1 -veined. Lemma apex entire; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical; geniculate; 50-80 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn hirtellous. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 2.5 mm long. Stigmas 2.
    Distribution
    Europe: central, southwestern, and southeastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: southwest USA, south-central USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Perennial, up to about 1 m. high
    Flowers
    Awns twisted into a spire when young, and forming a malignant tangled knot at maturity; callus painfully pungent.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Assam, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, Ghana, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Somalia, South China Sea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Tunisia, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Ascension, Cook Is., Nansei-shoto, Venezuela, Wallis-Futuna Is.

    Common Names

    English
    (Common) spear grass, Stick grass, Tanglehead

    Heteropogon contortus (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [89], Cape Verde K001134468
    Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [90], Cape Verde K001134467
    Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [91], Cape Verde K001259203
    Jan 1, 2014 Ule, E. [7920], Brazil K001072841
    Jan 1, 2014 Gardner, G. [3522], Brazil K001072840
    May 27, 1933 s.coll. [s.n.], Tamil Nadu K000911728
    Jan 1, 1817 Hohenacker, R.F. [301], Karnataka K000245939 isotype
    Jan 1, 1817 Hohenacker, R.F. [301], Karnataka K000245940 isotype
    Jan 1, 1817 Wallich, N. [1688], India K000245938
    Hinton, G.B. [5306], México State K000476382
    Hinton, G.B. [6700], Guerrero K000476384
    Hinton, G.B. [2068], México State K000476385
    Hinton, G.B. [1821], México State K000476381
    Hinton, G.B. [9400], Guerrero K000476383
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19559], Thailand K000620579
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11072], Thailand K000620580
    Kerr, A.F.G. [15976], Thailand K000620581
    Kerr, A.F.G. [7976], Thailand K000620582
    Kerr, A.F.G. [7073], Thailand K000620583
    Kerr, A.F.G. [4610], Thailand K000620584
    Kerr, A.F.G. [1267], Thailand K000620585
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19765], Thailand K000620593
    Sorensen, Th. [4437], Thailand K000688904
    Sorensen, Th. [5886], Thailand K000688905
    Larsen, K. [1596], Thailand K000688903
    van Beusekom, C.F. [3789], Thailand K000688902
    Schimper [1219], Ethiopia K000280098 isotype
    Schimper [1219], Ethiopia K000280097 isotype
    Schimper [1219], Ethiopia K000280099 isotype
    Smitinand, T. [1613], Thailand K000688894
    Smitinand, T. [2032], Thailand K000688895
    Smitinand, T. [3063], Thailand K000688896
    Smitinand, T. [4001], Thailand K000688897
    Smitinand, T. [4264], Thailand K000688898
    Chantaranothai, P. [90/478], Thailand K000688893
    Spruce, R. [6094], Ecuador K000201742
    Spruce, R. [6094], Ecuador K000201743
    Parry, D.E. [38], Thailand K000688901
    Put [2173], Thailand K000620586
    Put [2173], Thailand K000620587
    Put [1967], Thailand K000620588
    Put [1967], Thailand K000620589
    Eiten, G. [10790], Brazil K001072843
    Collins, D.J. [1909], Thailand K000688892
    Kloss, C.B. [s.n.], Thailand K000688888
    Hosseus, C.C. [108a], Thailand K000688891
    Marcan, A. [2313], Thailand K000620590
    Marcan, A. [2313], Thailand K000620591
    Marcan, A. [2229], Thailand K000620592
    Tagawa, M. [T 2203], Thailand K000688900
    Smitinand [6190], Thailand K000688899
    Lindhard, E. [s.n.], Thailand K000688889
    Lindhard, E. [s.n.], Thailand K000688890
    s.coll. [s.n.], France K000911729
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8800], Nepal Andropogon contortus K001128242
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128236
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128237
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128238
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800], India Andropogon contortus K001128239
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800], India Andropogon contortus K001128240
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800], India Andropogon contortus K001128241
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128246
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128243
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8800] Andropogon contortus K001128244
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8800], Myanmar Andropogon contortus K001128245

    First published in Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2: 836 (1817)

    Accepted by

    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Barina, Z., Pifkó, D. & Mesterházy, A. (2011). Contributions to the flora of Albania, 3 Willdenowia 41: 329-339.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad) Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 421.
    • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 13: 878
    • F.T.A. 9: 411
    • Syst. Veg. 2: 836 (1817)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Barina, Z., Pifkó, D. & Mesterházy, A. (2011). Contributions to the flora of Albania, 3 Willdenowia 41: 329-339.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
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