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  1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Hyparrhenia Andersson ex E.Fourn.
      1. Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees) Stapf

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean, S. Central China to Indo-China. It is used as animal food and has environmental uses.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Caespitose perennial or sometimes annual; culms up to 250 cm high, erect.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf sheaths glabrous; leaf laminas 30–60 cm × 2–8 mm, rigid.
    Inflorescences
    False panicle 5–80 cm long, lax or contracted and fasciculate; spatheoles 3–5 cm long, linear-lanceolate, at length reddish and rolled about the peduncle; peduncles usually longer than the spatheoles by up to 2 cm or more, rarely shorter, glabrous or pilose above with spreading white hairs; racemes (1.5)2–2.5 cm long, (7)9–14-awned per pair, fulvously to rufously pilose or with the callus and lower part of the internode and pedicel white-hirsute, usually terminally exserted, not or very rarely deflexed; raceme-bases unequal, sometimes ± connate, the superior 2–3.5(4) mm long, terete, glabrous (very rarely with a few long hairs), the articulation with the peduncle tip glabrous.
    Homogamous
    Homogamous spikelets similar to the pedicelled, a single pair at the base of the inferior raceme or both racemes.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelets (3)3.5–4.5(5) mm long; callus 0.2–0.8 mm long, short and round to cuneate and narrowly truncate at the apex; inferior glume lanceolate, yellowish-brown to reddish-brown often tinged with violet, rarely green or glaucous, glabrous to pubescent but typically with a scanty covering of stiff rufous hairs, usually glossy; awn 2–3 cm long, the column rufously pubescent.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelets 3–5 mm long, narrowly lanceolate, acute or rarely mucronate at the apex; callus absent; pedicel-tooth up to 0.3 mm long, triangular. Homogamous spikelets similar to the pedicelled, a single pair at the base of the inferior raceme or both racemes. Sessile spikelets (3)3.5–4.5(5) mm long; callus 0.2–0.8 mm long, short and round to cuneate and narrowly truncate at the apex; inferior glume lanceolate, yellowish-brown to reddish-brown often tinged with violet, rarely green or glaucous, glabrous to pubescent but typically with a scanty covering of stiff rufous hairs, usually glossy; awn 2–3 cm long, the column rufously pubescent.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelets 3–5 mm long, narrowly lanceolate, acute or rarely mucronate at the apex; callus absent; pedicel-tooth up to 0.3 mm long, triangular.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Perennial or sometimes annual, 0·3–2·4 m. high
    Ecology
    Typically a tall savanna grass, often preferring moister sites, but dwarfed forms may be found by roadsides and other frequented places.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2000 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor
    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Ecology
    Alt. 0 - 2000 m.
    Habit
    Herb.
    Distribution
    Introduced and naturalised in Colombia.
    Conservation
    Least concern.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes short. Butt sheaths glabrous. Basal innovations intravaginal. Culms erect; 30-250 cm long; 2-6 mm diam. Culm-internodes solid. Lateral branches fastigiate. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths wider than blade at the collar. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2-3 mm long. Leaf-blades 30-60 cm long; 2-8 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins smooth. Leaf-blade apex attenuate; filiform.
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence compound; paniculate to fasciculate; 5-80 cm long. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; exserted. Spatheole linear to lanceolate; 3-5 cm long; membranous. Peduncle 3-8 cm long; glabrous, or pilose above. Racemes 2; paired; erect; unilateral; 2-2.5 cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 4-7 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; ciliate on margins. Rhachis hairs red. Rhachis internodes linear. Rhachis internode tip oblique; flat. Raceme-bases filiform; unequal (the longer measured); 2-3.5 mm long; glabrous. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels linear; flattened; ciliate; tip oblique.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2 in number (lower raceme); 0-2 in upper raceme; equalling fertile. Basal sterile spikelet glumes smooth on margins; lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 3.5-5 mm long; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; pilose; with white hairs (rarely), or red hairs; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 3.5-4.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus oblong to cuneate; 0.2-0.8 mm long; pubescent; base obtuse; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs white, or yellow. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 2 in number (lower raceme); 0-2 in upper raceme; equalling fertile. Basal sterile spikelet glumes smooth on margins; lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas, or male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 3.5-5 mm long; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; pilose; with white hairs (rarely), or red hairs; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 3.5-4.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus oblong to cuneate; 0.2-0.8 mm long; pubescent; base obtuse; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs white, or yellow.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; with lower wider than upper; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma; shiny. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; without keels; 5 -veined. Lower glume surface pilose. Lower glume hairs red. Lower glume apex dentate; 2 -fid. Upper glume linear; 1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex dentate; 2 -fid; mucronate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 1 length of fertile lemma; hyaline; 2 -veined; entire. Fertile lemma linear; 3-4 mm long; membranous; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 20-30 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn pubescent (rufously). Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy. Anthers 3; 1 mm long. Stigmas 2.
    Distribution
    Africa: Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: China. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: southeast USA and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. WDC.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennial, or sometimes annual; culms 30–250 cm. high.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 30–60 cm. long, 2–8 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    False panicle lax or contracted and fasciculate, 5–80 cm. long; spatheoles linear-lanceolate, 3–5 cm. long, at length reddish and rolled around the peduncle, the latter usually exserted, often by 2 cm. or more; racemes (1.5–)2–2.5 cm. long, (7–)9–14-awned per pair, fulvous to rufous, not deflexed (or very rarely so); raceme-bases unequal, sometimes ± connate, the upper 2–3.5(–4) mm. long, glabrous (very rarely with a few long hairs), the articulation with the peduncle tip glabrous. Homogamous pairs 1 at the base of the lower, or of both, racemes.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet (3–)3.5–4.5(–5) mm. long, glabrous to pubescent but typically with a scanty covering of stiff rufous hairs, usually glossy; callus 0.2–0.8 mm. long, short and rounded to cuneate and narrowly truncate; awn 2–3 cm. long, rufously pubescent.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet acute or rarely mucronate. Sessile spikelet (3–)3.5–4.5(–5) mm. long, glabrous to pubescent but typically with a scanty covering of stiff rufous hairs, usually glossy; callus 0.2–0.8 mm. long, short and rounded to cuneate and narrowly truncate; awn 2–3 cm. long, rufously pubescent.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet acute or rarely mucronate.
    Habitat
    One of the commonest species in deciduous bushland and wooded grassland, often preferring moist sites, but also in frequented places; 0–2300 m.
    Distribution
    tropical and South Africa, Madagascarintroduced to tropical America and Australia K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7
    [UPB]
    Environmental
    Environmental uses (State of the World's Plants 2016).
    Grains & Cereals
    Eaten by animals (State of the World's Plants 2016).
    Materials
    Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
    Unspecified Materials Chemicals
    Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, Comoros, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Canary Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Jawa, Leeward Is., Marianas, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Northern Territory, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Society Is., Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Western Australia, Windward Is.

    Accepted Infraspecifics

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees) Stapf appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2014 Irwin, H.S. [5169], Brazil K001059305
    Jan 1, 2014 Glaziou, A.F.M. [s.n.], Brazil K001059301
    Jan 1, 2014 Glaziou, A.F.M. [20068], Brazil K001059304
    Nov 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [685], Cameroon K000746256
    Jan 1, 1997 Madsen, J.E. [6128], Burkina Faso K000211879
    Jan 1, 1997 Madsen, J.E. [6128], Burkina Faso K000211880
    Nov 1, 1965 Gerard [1085] K000280367
    Nov 1, 1965 Glaziou, A.F.M. [9054], Brazil K001059295
    Jan 1, 1964 Eiten, G. [4746], Brazil K001059296
    Jan 1, 1944 Archer, W.A. [7871], Brazil K001059297
    Sorensen, Th. [2569], Thailand K000688862
    Smith, Congo K000280365 isotype
    Schimper [928] K000280309 isotype
    Schimper [935], Ethiopia K000280311
    Schimper [1118], Ethiopia K000280310 isosyntype
    Martius [1930], Brazil K000004647 Unknown type material
    Martius [1931], Brazil K000004648 Unknown type material
    Martius [1930], Brazil K000004649 Unknown type material
    Smitinand, T. [2614], Thailand K000688863
    Smitinand, T. [8756], Thailand K000688864
    Smitinand, T. [11790], Thailand K000688865
    Welwitsch [7409], Angola K000280225 isotype
    Welwitsch [7409], Angola K000280224 isotype
    Irwin, H.S. [6833], Brazil K001059306
    Archer, W.A. [4188], Brazil K001059298
    Burchell, W.J. [6241], Brazil K001059294
    Rose Innes, R. [31469], Burkina Faso K000211878
    Thollon [1078] K000280366 Unknown type material
    Braun, A. K000280313 isotype
    Braun, A. K000280312
    Laegaard, S. [21332], Burkina Faso K000211867
    Laegaard, S. [18320], Burkina Faso K000211868
    Laegaard, S. [18303], Burkina Faso K000211869
    Timberlake, J. [5312], Malawi K000614658
    Sukkri, B. [83], Thailand K000688861
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [22379], Brazil K001059300
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [9054], Brazil K001059303
    Davey, J.T. [8], Mali K000211870
    Pohl, J.B.E. [1128], Brazil K001059299
    Adam, J.-.G. [11309], Mali K000211871
    Adam, J.-.G. [11409], Mali K000211884
    Scholz [50], Burkina Faso K000211875
    Scholz [183], Burkina Faso K000211876
    Scholz [186], Burkina Faso K000211877
    Farrow, R.A. [71], Mali K000211881
    Naegele, A. [8], Burkina Faso K000211874
    Duong [1509], Mali K000211882
    Rogeon, J.-.F. [228], Mali K000211883
    Saint-Hilaire, A.F.C.P. [1105], Brazil K001059302

    Bibliography

    First published in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9: 304 (1919)

    Accepted by

    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Vigosa-Mercado, J.L. & Fonseca, R.M. (2017). Flora de Guerrero 75: 1-153. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Clayton in Kew Bull., Add. Ser. 2: 60. (1969)
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 426
    • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 13: 872
    • in F.T.A. 9: 304 (1919)

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa https://plants.jstor.org/collection/UPWTA in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Vigosa-Mercado, J.L. & Fonseca, R.M. (2017). Flora de Guerrero 75: 1-153. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
    • Robyns, W. (1929). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1: 1-229. Goemaere, Bruxelles.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 492 (1972).
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 108 (1965).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p.36 (1960).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 60 (1958).
    • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 45 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 468 (1956).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 3: 61 (1955).
    • Edwards & Bogdan, Imp. Grassl. Pl. Kenya: 78 (1951).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 24 (1947).
    • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 1: 165 (1929).
    • Hubbard, E.A. Pasture Plants 2: 12 (1927).
    • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 304 (1919).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0